May 15. 1669. This day being Saturday, I received from the Honourable Mr. Wren, Secretary to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, my Commission to Command his Majesty's Ship the Sweepstakes, the Ship being at Deptford, in the River of Thames near London.
Sunday September 26. 1669. Set out at his Majesty's proper Cost, one of his own Ships named the Sweepstakes, Burthen 300 Tuns, with 36 great Ordnance, and all other Munition proportionable; manned with 80 Men and Boys, victualled for fourteen Months, at whole allowance of all Provisions both good and wholesom, having Oat-meal for Fish, and four Tuns and an half of Brandy in lieu of Beer, stores of all sorts compleat for twelve months, with provision of Craft to take Fish and Fowls, a seyne Net, and hook, and lines, and fisgigs, and harping Irons, twelve Fowling pieces, with shot, and pigs of Lead to make Shot, if occasion, &c. And the Batchelour Pink, burthen 70 Tuns, with four great Ordnance, and all other Munition proportionable; mann'd with nineteen Men, one Boy, victualled for twelve months, at whole allowance of all Provision good and wholefom, as the Sweepstakes had, and stores proportionable for the time, and Craft to take Fish and Fowl, &c.
Having a sort of Goods to the value of three hundred pounds, as followeth, Knives, Sissers, Glasses, Beads, Hatchets, Bills, Hoes, Nails, Needles, Pins, Pipes, Bells, Boxes, &c. Dassels Linnen, Cloth, Osenbrigs,§ Tobacco, and Pipes, &c. to trade with the Natives, at his Majesty's Charge.
§ A heavy, strong linen.
Wednesday September 29. Hazy weather, the Wind to the North-west and by West, a fresh gale: I stood to the South-west-ward as near as I could; this day at twelve a Clock, the Lizard bore North of me a little Easterly, distant about 12 Leagues, according to my account; Latitude by account, is 49 d 35 m. This day I spoke with a French Banker: Lizard in England lies in the Lat. of 50 d. 10 m. and in Longitude East, from the Meridian of the part of St. Michael, one of the Islands of the Azores 18 d. 30 m. From the Lizard I take my departure, and keep my daily account of the difference of my Longitude from that Meridian.
October the 17. I made the Madera; which Island is high Land, and irregular in Hills, with Wood on the top and down the sides; Planted with Vine: there is some Sugar made in the Island; the Inhabitants Portugueses. The City of Fonchiale is the Metropolis, and is situated in a Bay on the South part of the Island, close to the Sea side, walled next to the Sea, and well fortified with Ordnance; Fresh water comes running into the Sea in the middel of the Bay, in a fair Rivulet from under an Arch in the Wall; the shoar-sides are great pebble stones in the Bay, and Rocks in the other places; the Road is foul ground, to the East part of it: the Ships ride in shot of Ordnance of the City: this City is about an English mile in length, and three quarters of a mile in breadth.
The Desarts are barren rocky Isles of a good heighth, and lie at the South-East point of Madera, above a mile distant from the shore; § there is water enough between Madera and the Defarts in the midway, and no danger; the Desarts trent to the South-east. Fonchiale Bay in the Isle of Madera lies in the Latitude of 32 d. 10 m. North, and in Longitude West from the Lizard of England 10 d. 1 m. and Meridian distance 143 Leagues.
§ Desertes Islands, actually about 16 miles southeast of the Madeira airport.
Sunday being the 17th. fair Weather and little wind at North-west, Course by my Compass South-west. I make my true Course from Fonchiale Bay, till to day at noon South-south-west, distance, sailed 34 miles six tenths departure West 13 miles; Diff. Lat. 00 d. 32 m. Lat. by account 31 d. 38 m. Meridian distance from the Lizard West, 147 leagues, 1 mile; Longitude from the Lizard West: 10 d. 17 m. Difference of Longitude from Fonchiale West. 00 d. 16 m. To day at noon I saw the Island of Madera, bearing N b. E: the body of the Isle distant by estimation 11 leagues; it makes in a bluff body at the wreft end, and trents to the East: Ea11: Course by the Compass this afternoon SW. little wind to night; I shaped my nearest Course for the Island of St. Jago with all the sail I could make, the Batchelour Pink in Company; I gave order to my Master to make the best of his way to St. Jago Island, but not to leave the Company of the Batchelour.
Saturday October 23 The wind at N. b. E. a gale: this day in the forenoon I crossed the Tropick of Cancer, all my men in good health, I praise the Almighty God for it: many of my men that had been with me in the Indies formerly, were let blood; for I take bleeding in these hot Climates to be a great preserver of health, diverting Calentures; I experience’d it in two Voyages before to the Island of St. Helena, and in one to the Coast of Guinea, where several of my men under that distempcr, were preserved by bleeding; in all these Voyages I was never sick one day, nor in two years time in the Mediterranean Sea, nor at the Canaries; for when I came near the Equinoctial I always breathed a Vein.
Thursday October 28. The Wind at East-North East: a stiff gale; this Morning I saw the Isie of may bearing S. b. W. distant by estimation eight Leagues; it makes a high Hill, and Craggy to the East part, and low land towards the shore-side, to the North-west part of the Island; it lies from Bonavist S. b. W. distant near 18 leagues. This day at 11 a Clock I anchored in the Road in seven fathom water, sandy Ground, about a mile from the shore; theNorthernmost point of the Road bearing N.N.W. half a point to the West, and the Southern point of the Road, bearing South-east from me; distant about a mile and an half: there are craggy Rocks to the South of the Road on the shore side, but to the North a low sandy shore; the Road is on the North-West and by West part of the Island in a small sandy Bay; there's the Saltpond a bow's shot from the Sea in the low flat Land; fresh water is very scarce here: I went ashore presently after I had anchored, and found a heap of Salt of about 20 Tuns; I got aboard again immediately, and sent the Long-boat ashore, which brought off 2 Tuns and ½, the Surf came in so much that no more could be got off; we halled the Seyne here, and caught abundance of good Mullets, with some Cavalle and silver Fish; one of the Islanders a Negro came aboard, whom I sent ashore, to tell the People that if they brought down some Cattle I would buy some of them; I rode here all Night; fair weather, the Wind Easterly. This side of the Island is dry land without wood; here are many Goats, and Guinea Hens.
Friday October 29. fair Weather, the wind at NE. a fine gale: this Morning I sent my Boat ashore, and bought of the Islanders some Goats at ½ a piece of Eight per Head, and 8 Cows excellent good meat at 6 pieces of Eight a Cow, giving the skins again; my men caught a great many Fish with the Seyne, which this day we split, and laid in pickle four Hours, then dried them to keep, which they will a long time in any Climate, as I have experienced in other Voyages, and are very good Victuals at Sea: I made what difpatch I could could to be gone for St. Jago Island. This day in the forenoon, a Ship passed by to the Westward on the South side of the Isle, and in the afternoon we saw severa1 Ships coming from the North ward, which were the Portuguese Fleet bound for Brazil; they hailed into Port Praya in the lile of St. Jago to water: this night I weighed, and stood away at twelve a Clock South-south-west for Port Praya, with the Pink in Company; I touched at the Isle of May for Salt, which I knew would be a great help to get Provisions in the Voyage.
Saturday October 30. fair wind at North-east and and by North a fresh gale. This Morning I steereed South-west for the South sidof St. Jago, where is the Road of Port Praya, lying near South-west from the Road of the Isle of May , and distant nine Leagues. This day at 12 a clock I cast my best Bower-anchor in Port Praya Road, in 10 fathom rough Ground, the East Point bore East of me, and the WEst Point about West-south-west, about half a mile off; I could not go inro the best of the Road, the Portuguese Fleet of about thrty six Sail riding in it; the Great Padre Eternal Admiral, bound for Brazil, a very great Ship and well built; they says she is in Burthen 1700 Tuns, she hath Ports for three Tier of Guns flush, but now she had but eighty; and poorly mann’d with Seamen,and so were all the rest, six frigats might have taken most of the Fleet. At my coming in to Anchor, the Admiral saluted me with seven Guns, I thanked him with as many; Captain Francis Wilksheir in the Jerusalem fired five, I returned him three; so did the Reer-Admiral, and I return'd the Complement in the like number, several of the Fleet fired three, whom I answer'd in conclusion with three for all. I rode on the broad side of the Admiral, and saluted the Fort with five Guns, which return'd three, then I sent my Lieutenant ashore to ask leave of the Governour to water, which he granted forthwith; my Coopers got the Cask ready, and this Evening put one boat's lading aboard.
Sunday October 31. fair Weather, the wind at North-east a fine gale. This Morning Don Carolus went ashore to Pryam; with much ado I got off a boats lading of Water, for the Portuguese boats were filling too, and a great many Soldiers at the watering place snatch'd some of our mens Hats off, and run away, wherefore I would not let my men go any more this day for fear of quarreling. This Bay of Port Praya, as they call it, is no Port, but a fine round Bay, having high streep Cliffs on the East side,and in the bottom a steep Hill,where the Castle is, that hath but four Gums, and is of no force; there is a small Fort on the top of a Hill on the East side, which hath three Guns. On the North-west part of the Bay the shore is gravelly and sandy, and there's a Grove of Coco-nut trees. A fresh water Rivulet runs down into the Valley, and thence through the Sand soaks into the Sea: this Water is in great quantity, very good, and keeps well at Sea: to the West part of this Bay lies a small Island close on the shore, which has Grass on it that may be cut off for Cattle, which I did; this Road is no safeguard for Shipping, for a Man of War may take any Ship out of the Bay, without receiving any damage from the Forts ashore, and with Fire-Ships a whole Fleet may be spoiled at pleaure; for it's a fresh gale everyday,and there is but two points of Land by which a man may fetch into any part of the Bay; also the Bay lies open to the Sea from the East, Southerly to the W.S.W. I called for my Lieutenants and Master, and acquainted them, that I had Orders to sail from thence to the Coast of America to the Southward of the River of Plate, to the streights of Magellan, through which we were to pass into the South Seas, and that we must shape our Course to make the shortest way of it, and be careful to keep Easterly enough of it to weather the shoals of Brazil, called the Abroholls, lying in and about eighteen degrees of Southerly Latitude; for the Wind blows for the most part thereabouts between the Latitude of ten South, and the Latitude of twenty South, at East by South and East South-east fresh gales; whilst this pass'd, in came the Master, and told me all things were slowed, and the Wind at E.b.N. fresh; I concluded with him that our best Course at present would be South and by East, and as we got Southerly and the Wind grew large, we might alter our Course when we would: we steered a Point or two from the Wind, that the Ship might have fresh way through the Sea. I order'd my Master to steer South and by East by the Compass, and my Lieutenant to call all hands to Prayer, read Service, and beg'd of God Almighty a prosperous Voyage, continuance in Health, and love to one another, and that we might prosper in this Undertaking, &c.
Instructions for Mr. Humphrey Fleming, Commander of his Majesty's hired Pink the Batchelour; By vertue of an Order from His Royal Highness, dated the twenty ninth day of August 1669. to me directed.
You are hereby required to sail with his Majesties hired Pink the Batchelour, which you are Commander of, and to keep Company with his Majesties Ship the Sweepstakes to the Coast of America to the Southward of Rio de la Plata, and along the Coast of America to the Southward, till you come to the Strights of Magellan, lying in about 53 Degrees of South Latitude; through which you are to pass into the South Sea, and sail along the West Coast of America Northerly, till you come as high as Baldavia, which lies in about 40 Degrees of South-lat. there you shall receive further Orders from me, or in my absence, from the Commander in Chief on board his Majesties Ship the Sweepstakes, in case you keep Company with her, whose Company you are not to depart from or leave, upon any occasion whatsoever, as you will answer the contrary at your peril, unless you have Order from me so to do, or in my absence from the Commander in Chief on board her; You are also to understand, that you are to be employed by me as I shall see occasion to employ you, to discover Lands, Bays, Havens, Rivers or Streights, & c. The Design of this Voyage on which you are employed, being to make a Discovery both of the Seas and Coasts of that part of the World, and if possible to lay the foundation of a Trade there. You are not to meddle with the Coast of America, nor send on shore, unless in case of great neccessity, till you get to the Southward of Rio de la Plata; and you are not to do any injury to such Spaniards as you shall meet with, nor meddle with any place where they are planted: You are to take Obsfcrvations with as much Accuracy as you can, and also to cause your Mate and Company to do the like, to ohserve all Headlands, Islands, Bays, Havens, Roads, Mouths of Rivers, Rocks, Shoals, Soundings, Courses of Tides, flowing and settings of Currents, where you come, both in the North and South Seas, &c. and cause Draughts and Designs to be made of them; and also you are to take notice of all Trade-Winds &c. you meet with, and of the Weather, and especially to observe Harbours in the Streights of Magellan; You are in all places where you land to observe the nature of the Soil, and what Fruits, Woods, Grain, Fowls, and Beasts it produces, and what Stones and Minerals, and what Fish the Rivers and the Sea doth abound with; You are to do your utmost to procure of the Minerals to carry to England, and to deliver them to His Royal Highnefs's Secretary. You are also to mark the temper and inclinations of the Indian Inhabitants, and where you can gain any Correspondence with them, you are to make them sensible of the great Power and Wealth of the Prince and Nation to whom you belong, and that you are sent on purpose to set on foot a Trade, and to make Friendship with them; but above all for the Honour or our Prince and Nation, you are to take care that your Men do not by any rude behaviour or injuries to them, create an Aversion in them to the English Nation; but that on the other side they endeavour to gain their Love by kind and civil usage toward them, and whosoever shall act othcrwise, you are to correct him or them for so doing, which you are to acquaint your Men with, that they be not ignorant. You are to be careful of your Provisions and Liquor, and to husband it to the best advantage, that there be no wastful Expence made of it, nor of your Ships Furniture, as Sails, Anchors, Cables, and Rigging, & c. and that you endeavor at all places where you come to get Provisions, Wood and fresh Water, so as you do not endanger your Ship and Men, which you are to be vey careful of, and in no cause to expose any of your Men to the hazard of his Life, but always be careful that they be well guarded, and be watchful, for there have been many cut off by their own neglect. You are to be careful to keep a good Command aboard over your Men, and in case any mutinous practice under your Command, you are forthwith to make it known to me. You are to careful to have your Ship kept sweet and clean for the preservation of your Men's healths: And God prosper us.
Given under my Hand on board his Majesties Ship the Sweepstakes, riding at the Island of Saint Jago, in Port Praya Road, Novembr 5. 1669.
To Captain Humphrey Fleming, Commander of the Batchelour Pink, these.
Instructions for tbe better finding each other, after separation by Chance, foul Weather, or otherwise.
You are hereby required to Sail with his Majesties hired Ship the Batchelour under your Command, and to keep Company with his Majesties Ship the Sweepstakes, along the Coast of America, to the Southward of Rio de la Plata, to Port St. Julian on that Coast, which lies about 49 d. 20 m. South Latitude, which your Draughts mention. In case of Separation at Sea in this Voyage from each other, you are to use all means to endeavour to meet again, that is to say, by looking well abroad at Sea, and so to observe the Order in your sailing Instructions, to know each other at sight: the next Port of Rendezvouz will be at Port St. Julian, which is on the Coast of America, as is said before; You are to make all the hast that yon can thither, and to stay for the Sweepstakes there two whole Months, if you get thither before her, and she shall do the like for you; In your way thither, after you have passed to the Southward of Rio de la Plata, twill be best for you to Sail along the Coast of America, to see if you can fall with me, and to make Cape Blanco which lies in about 17 d. 20 m. South Latitude, and so to Port St. Julian, where you are to stay; you may also enquire for me at Port Defir, which lies in about 48 d. South-Lat. If I shall come to any place and be gone again before you come thither, I will leave a piece of Board nailed to a Pole or a Tree, engraven, mentioning the Ship's name, and the day of my departure, and the next Port I intend to go to; I desire you would do the same, and at Port St. Julian I will do likewise, and also leave an Order for you tied to a Pole, being put in a glass Bottle; the Pole shall be placed on the Island which lies in the Harbour at the West end thereof, where I shall build a Tent; pray be careful to look for it, and I shall do the same for you; it may be I may have an opportunity to touch on the Coasts as I sail along, if I can find any Trade with the Natives; you may be sure where ever I come to find those Memorials of my being there before you; so God prosper our Intentions. Given under my Hand at Port Praya, Road on Board the Sweepftakes riding there at the Island of St. Jago, Novemb. 5. 1669.
To Captain Humphrey Fleming, Commander of the Batchelour Pink.
December 4. Many flying Fish seen to day, and Bonetto’s, Sharkfish, and Albycores, a Fish larger than a Bonetto, but of that Mackrel shape, and feaverish Diet, they live upon the flying Fish like the Bonettos; to day we caught some of them with Hooks, and one Shark; our Men eat them both, and account the Shark a good f'ish.
December 7. To day the Cooper found two Buts of Beer had leaked out: this day all of us drank Water only, for it was ever my order that the meanest Boy in the Ship should have the same allowance with my self, so that in general we all drank of the same Cask, and eat one sort of Provision, as long as they lasted. I never permitted any Officer to have a better piece of Meat than what fell to his Lot, but one blinded with a Cloth serv'd every Man as they were called to touch and take, by which means we had never any Difference upon that score.
Saturday December 18. All the Ship's Company God be praised in good health, most of them were let blood after I had cross'd the Tropick of Cancer, and none troubled with the Calenture in this Voyage.
Whilst I am in the hot Weather I allow a quart of Vinegar to 6 Men per Week, and also to eat with their fresh Fish, which I divide equally among the whole Ship's Company, be it little or much, or caught by whomsoever.
Friday December 24. I find great Difference within this 48 hours between my dead Account, as we call it, which is kept by the Log, and the Observations I made these 2 days when the Sun was on the Meridian; for I find I have gone more Southerly by 12 Miles than the Log allows; I can't perceive any variation, and the Log is well kept, and the half minute Glass good; I judge the Current sets to the Southward, now the Winds are at the East, and the Moon near the full.
December 30. This Afternoon I took an Azimuth, and find six degrees ten minutes variation Easterly, my Observation being of a good one; fair Weather to Night at 9 a Clock, Nebeles major was very visible ini the Heaven, and seems to be a piece of the Milky-way broke from it; the Southern Constellations appear which are near the Pole Antarctick, the Camelion, the Bird of Paradise, the Tail of little Hydra, and the Water-snake, which are all small Stars of the 5th and 6th Magnitude; no Pole-star nor any Star fit for Observation to be seen within 5 degrees of the Pole, tle Crosers Stars of the first and second Magnitude are good for Observation, and are in this form when they are on the Meridian above the Pole.
Some Fowls flying to and fro, a kind of Sea-gul1s, and Gannet a black Sea-Fowl as big as a Pigeon, and some large ones of that kind, three Tropick Birds flying over the Ship of a grey Colour, with a long spired Tail as big as Pigeons.
Some Bonetto's taken to day; A great broad flat Fish like a Scate following the Ship, called by the Seamen a String-Ray, having a long Tail and a sharp bow at the end of it, when it pricks a Man it puts him to much pain, They are called by some Cloke-fishes, the lesser sort are good to eat.
January 5. Variation ot the Compass by an Amplitude in the Morning 06 d. 46 m. East; this Afternoon I brought the Ship to, and sounded one hundred and eighty four fathom right down, and had no ground; I being thwart of the Shoals of Brazil caused me to sound, I thought the Sea look'd whiter than usual, variation at Sunset 6 d. 46 m. East; little Wind this Afternoon, at East by North; I made all the Sail I could, Stay-fails, Steering-sails, Boats-sail and Bonadventure misen, all set to draw away Southerly, some Fowls flying over the Ship which we call Men of War, they prey on flying Fish, &c.
January 14. Few Fish seen, now and then a small Bonetto taken, small Sea-Fowls call'd Black Nodies flying to and fro, and 2 Curlieus flying to the Eastward.
January 24. I judge a Current sets out of the River of Plate, for I find nine miles more to the Southward than I expected; I have been careful of my Course and Variation, which is but 8 d. 20 m. East, by an amplitude taken to Night; I am open of the mouth of the River of Plate, sounded to Night, but no ground at one hundred and forty five Fathom; Wind at North and by East, all Night close Weather; I steered Southwest and by South.
Monday January 3 I. Calm this Morning at 8 a Clock the Wind came to the North-west a fine gale; at eleven a Clock the Wind went round the Compass, and came to North; with much thunder, lightning, and some rain; very dark Clouds, cold hasey Weather; several spots of Sea-weeds driving in the Sea, and a great many Sea-fowls of a brown colour swimming in it: smooth Water; Course steered is South-west: by my Compass; this day one main shroud and one fore shroud broke, and to strope of the Main-jeer block; Variation of Sun-rising by an Amplitude is 9 d. 43 m. East; all my Men in good health, God be praised.
All the Albycores, Bonettos, and flying Fish have quite left the Ship; no Fish to be seen but Whales.
Tuesday February 1. Cloudy foggy Weather this Morning, and little Wind at South-east. I stood to the South-westward, I saw abundance of Sea-fowl flying to and fro; striking about the weeds for small Fish, several beds of Sea weeds driving by the Ship; it fell calm this Afternoon; many small Shrimps about the Ship, and eight young Seal-fishes close to it; they were as big as an ordinary Spaniel-dog, of a black colour, and went away to the Westward; this Afternoon a fresh gale at South-south east; I steered away Southward and by West by my Compass; the Air as cold here all a sudden, as 'tis in England in September. These Seas are very much exposed to sudden Gusts and variable Winds, for the Wind has run round the Compass twice or thrice a day these 3 days, the Sea-water is changed whiter than the usual colour, whence I conjecture, I must be in Soundings, also by my account of Longitude, kept from the Lizard, I am not 1 d. 28 m. off from Land according to Mercator's Draught: This Evening I sounded, but had no ground at 130 Fathom; Wind at South a fine gale: I steer'd in West-south-west; at ten a Clock to Night, I observed the Water to riple as if it were over a shoal, and had ground at seventy Fathom; I caused the Head-sails to be braced to the Mast, and sounded; fine red Sand inclining to grey at 70 Fathom.
February 2. Meridian distance from the Lizard, West 839 Leagues, 2 miles 810; Longitude at Noon from the Lizard West 49 deg. 43 m. little Wind this Afternoon, and fair Weather; we lay sometimes one way, sometimes another; Wind at South-west: and by South a small gale. I hoisted out my Boat, and sounded, but no ground at 140 Fathoms; I tried the Current with my Boat, but found little or none worth notice: the Sea ripled in many places; I sounded on tbcm, but no ground at 108 Fathom; several Beds of Sea-weed driving to and fro in knots; these weeds are five or six fathom long, in strings, with broad leaves on them of a brown colour, at the root hangs a Clod or Rock of 2 or 3 pound weight; several Sea-Fowls flying and swimming near the Ship; it being quite calm, my Men kill'd some of them with their Birding-pieces, for they were very tame, not moving at the report of a Gun; they are very like to Sea-Gulls, and good meat; some Seals and Whales seen.
February 5. were seen several beds of Rock-weed, and Sea-Fowls, much like Gannets; some black, others white, pied, and grey; small Sealfishes like so many Dogs, for their Heads resemble Bull-dogs, which they'l keep above Water a long time, and look at the Ship; they are very nimble at diving, and skipping out of the Water: This Afternoon at seven'a Clock I was in the Latitude of 41 degrees South, and in Longitude, West from the Lizard of England, 52 deg. and 50 min. and in Meridian distance from the Lizard 895 Leagues; Meridian distance from Port Praya, 616 Leagues, Longitude from Port Praya, West, 36 d. 34 m. This Night I advised with Don Carolus where it would be best for us to hale in with the Land, in what Latitude, or at what Cape or Harbour on this Coast of America, being now to the South ward of the River of Plate, and according to my Instructions, before the Coast to be discover'd, and a Trade set on foot with the Natives; He told me I might do what I would, for he did not understand the Coast, nor where 'twas inhabited; ‘twas his whole Difcourse in the Voyage, that he had been here in a Galley, and knew all the Coasts from the River of Plate to the Streights, and thorow [through] the Streights all along the West Coast to Baldavia and Lima; being arrived here, as far as I can perceive by him, he knows nothing of the matter, nor any thing appertaining to Navigation; all I can fancy of him is, that he may have liv'd with a West-Indian Governour, whom he has heard talk of these Parts.
February 8. at 7 a Clock this Afternoon the Wind came to the West South-west, a stiff gale. I stood to the Southward; much Rock-weed pass'd by the Ship to day, and several Sea-Fowls seen; very cold for the Season, being Summer, which Don Carolus began to complain of, and told me, he did not think we should have come so far Southerly; I shew'd him by my Plates how far we were to go through the Streights, and along the West Coast; he said, the Spaniards went to Chile a nearer way; I anfwer'd, 'twas into the River of Plate and over Land, which we could not do.
My Company are all in good health, but some of a puny Race grow weak in being so long on Shipboard; I give them Vinegar once a Week, which is very good to prevent the Scurvy in their Mouths; also I order'd every Man to wash his Mouth, Face and Hands before he receive his daily Allowance of Bread, and appointed one Man to see it performcd; if any neglected it, the Steward kept their Allowance for one day; likewise every Man is commanded to keep himself clean,and free from Lice, upon forfeiture of his daily Allowance to the Party accusing him; by these means the Ship is kept neat, sweet and clean, tho' the dirty foggy Weather is a great Enemy to this Discipline.
Feb. February 19. I sounded often to day, and had fifty and fifty-three Fathom; dark black Sand with some bright fine Sand in it; Beds of Rockweed, Seals, and Porpoises, such as are in the European Seas, seen to day; three Whales, many Fowls flying about. and some Penguins in the Sea, swimming near the Ships; at 2 a Clock in the Afternoon the Wind was at E. b. S. a stout gale and a great Sea; stood to the Southward, close haled under my Courses; the Pink half a Mile to windward of me under her's; she out-sails us now it blows, and puts us past our Top-sails, and steers along with us with only her Main-sails et; the Sea runs lofty.
Monday February 21. At a quarter of an hour past eight this Morning I saw the Land bearing West of me, and distant about 4 Leagues: I sounded, and had 21 Fathom; small Stones and Sand; still I stood in West by my Compass. The Land makes but an ordinary heighth towards the Sea side, but farther up, round high Hills, and looks reddish; the Northermost Land I could see, which was Cape Blanco, bore North-north-west of me about two Leagues, and the Southcrmofl Land at the face of the Cape.
The Land trented away to the Southward of me South-westerly, of an ordinary height by the Water side, but up in the Land are Hills like Tables on the top, a little higher than the rcst; the Land makes in Hills and Valleys all along, like Downs of an ordinary heighth; at nine a Clock this Morning I braced the Head-sails to the Mast, and lay so half an hour till the Fog cleared up, that I might make the Land plainly, being within five miles of the shore side, which made a kind of Bay, breached on the shore; I sounded, and at 7 Fathom had rough ground, with some small stones drawn up in the Tallow of the Lead, which was dinted by Rocks; between nine and ten a Clock there was a fine clear, by which I saw the Land very plain ly; it look'd reddish like seared Grass; no Woods to be seen on any of the Hills or Valleys, but all as bare as the Grass-Downs in England; I did not send my Boat ashore for fear of losing her in the Fog, or being sunk at the shore, whereon the Sea breaks very much: the Wind was at North and by East; a fresh gale blew almost along the shore, and being out but 24 hours before, made the Sea run high; the Land lies by the Sea-side South-south-west, and North-north-east, as far as I could see to the Southward; no fire or smoak to be seen upon the Land.
Course made true after several Courses, from yesterday Noon till to day at nine a Clock, when I was 3 Leagues off the Land; true Course is West 6 d. 50 m. Northerly distance; sailed fifty miles seven tenths. Departure West, 50 miles; difference of Longitude West 1 d. 5 m. difference of Latitude North 0 d. 6 m. Latitude by account is 47 d. 4 m. South; no Observation this three ays being foggy Weather.
Meridian distance from the Lizard 1014 League, 1 mile, 7 tenths, Longitude at 9 a Clock, from the Lizard, West, 61 d. 56 m. 6 tenths, Longitude from Port Praya West, 735 Leagues, 1 mile, 5 tenths. Variation of the Compass Easterly, 18 Degrees.
I concluded we had shot past Port Desier Harbour in the Fog, for the Islands and Rocks which we saw, were Penguin, and other Isles lying about it, which lies to the Southward of the Harbour of Port Desier. Many Seals, Penguins, pied Porpoises, and several Sea Fowls, &c. seen to day.
Thursday Febr. 24. Hasey Weather; Wind at West-north-west, a fresh gale. I sent Men up to the Top-mast-head to look abroad; this morning no sight of the Pink; I judge she must be in Port Desier: I weighed about 8 a Clock this Morning, and stood to the Northward with my Ship; I went in my Pinnace along the shore to the Northward, whilst the Ship sail'd in the Offing, about two Leagues from the shore: the Shore-side is in Beaches and scatter'd Rocks; in many places the Tide of Flood was with us at the North-end of Seal Bay, lies a small rocky Island copling up like a Haycock. It is cover'd with grey-colour'd Fowls Dung; a very strong Tide runs here, between the Island and the Main, 'tis a little more than a Cables length from the Point of the Main; there's a great many broken Rocks about it by the Sea-side; here the main Land is low and sandy, up the Country in large Downs and Hills; without wood or fresh Water any where: On this Island are abundance of Seals,and Sea Fowls; we gave it the name of Tomahauk Island, from an Indian Club lost here, called by the Caribbe lndians at Surinam a Tomahauke, 'tis all a craggy Rock, a little bigger than Seal-Island, and is eight Leagues to the North-north-east distant from it to the North-west of this Island, is a deep rounding Bay, called in the Charts Spiring's Bay, wherein lie three small Isands of an indifferent height: the Land, in the Country over this Bay is large high Hills, Rocks lie in the North part of the Bay; I cross'd it in the Pinnace and sounded as I went over, and had 21 Fathom, rough ground in the mid-way: 'tis seven Miles broad, and near 3 Leagues deep; it rounds with a turning up to the North-north-westward, behind a Point farther than I saw; upon which rounding Point stand black Rocks, which make like a ragged Building, and a Tower in it: at my coming in with the Land, I sail'd close under this shoar with my Boat; the shore is steep, black Rocks, and low Bays, with Pebble-stones and sandy Beaches; green Grass on the Hills, no Wood nor fresh Water to be seen; at the North-east Point of this Spiring's-Bay, the Land makes out full like a foreland; a fair high Land in large plain Hills, with sandy small Bays; at the face of this Foreland lie six rocky Islands; one is a Musket-shot off the Main, the rest farther off; the outwardmost is the biggest, a Mile from the Point of the Main, and is called Penguin Island; it is indifferent high at the ends and low in the middle; 'tis near three quarters of a Mile long, North-north-east and South-south-west, and near half a Mile broad East and West; it is all craggy Rocks, except in the Iowest part of the middle, which is gravelly, and in the Summer time has a little green Grass; the great black Gannets lay their Eggs here, and the Penguins, all over the Island upon and under the Rocks in Holes; Seals lie all about the sides, on the tops of the highest Rocks and in the middle of it; the number of Seals, Penguins, and SeaFowl upon these Islands, is almost incredible to them that never saw them; for the multitude of each Creature that's there daily, is numberless: the Six Islands are full of Seals, but the Penguins frequent the biggest mosr; I put ashore at one of them, and took into my Boat three hundred Penguins, in less than half an hour, and could have taken three thousand in the time, if my Boat would have carried 'em, for 'tis but driving 'em in flocks to the shore, by the Boats side, where two or three Men knock them on the head with short Truncheons, and the rest heave them into the Boat; the Seals will run over a Man, if he does not avoid 'em; mean time the Ship was standing to the Northward; about 2 Leagues off many broken Rocks and foul ground lie among these Islands, and without the Point of the outermost it makes a great ripling, which is the strength of the Tide, reversed from the Islands against the other Tide; to the Northward of these Islands is a Bay, four Leagues long, and a League and half deep; in the Northwest thereof lies the Harbour of Port Desier, which we could see from Penguin Island, bearing North-north-west from Penguin Island, distiant about 3 Leagues: about the middle of this Bay are steep white Cliffs, near two miles long; the upper part of the Cliff has black streaks down a fourth part, causcd by the Water draining down on it; the Land is plain on the top of these Cliffs, but further into the Country high rounding Hills and Downs, and toward the Water-side low; on the South part of the Bay are craggy Rocks on the Main like great Walls; near the Sea there's a sandy Cove, to hale a Boat up in foul Weather; the Cove is just under these wall-like Rocks.
Saturday Feb. 26. Fair Weather, the Wind at West, a stiff gale. I kept a Light out all Night, that the Pink might see if she came along; the first part of the Night a great Fire was made on the shore for the same purpose: Cold weather: this Morning at 7 a Clock I manned both my Boats, and went into the Harbour; the Ship rode moored at the Harbour-mouth,within the Musclebank, in six Fathom at low Water; I sent my Men upon the Hills on the North shore to look abroad for the Pink, and make a Fire in the dry Grass, that she might see the smoak if she were thereabouts, but they could not see her; I soundd the Harbour in many places to day at low Water, and found it a very good one for great Ships to ride in, provided they have good Cables and Anchors; I searched the shore, bur found no wood, and very little fresh Water; on the hilly and large Downs, very few Bushes, but dry, long Grass growing in tufts and knots; the Soil is Gravelly and dry, in some Valleys well mixt with black mould; no People, fire or smoak but our own to be seen; I saw several places where they had lain, behind Bushes upon Grass, which they had plucked up, and that they had made small fires, and roasted Lumpets and Muscles; there lay Wooll, Feathers, bones of Beasts, and shivers of Flints; I went to a Flag which I left on a Hill yesterday with Beads at it, but finding no body had been at it, let it stand; no Beasts seen any where, except two Hares running over the Hills: this day we were taken up with viewing the Harbour, so that we did not advance above a mile and a half into the Land: in the Valleys between the Rocks grows abundance of wild Pease, which had green leaves and blewish blossoms, both tasting like green Pease-leaves in England, growing on vines and tangled together; also very sweet smelling Herbs much like Tares, very green, and white and yellow Flowers, likewise green Herbs much like Sage, but grow in knots near the ground like Lettice; these Herbs with the Pease-leaves, made a good Sallad to refresh such as were inclining to the Scurvy; for want of which fresh Trade several of my Men were falling into it. Here are abundance of very good Muscles, and Limpets on the Rocks, and an Island frequented by many Seals, and Fowls; in the River were pied Divers as big as Ducks, some of them grey and black shags; Ducks and other Sea-Fowls breed on them amongst the Rocks and Bushes: to day I went upon one of these Islands, and caught as many young black Shags in their nests as loaded the Pinnace; when I have discovercd better the particulars of the Fowls and other things seen here, I will menrion them hereafter: Night coming on, and it beginning to blow hard, I went aboard with Herbs, Fowls, and what else I had got to day; and divided all things equally among the Company, the Boys Dividend being as large as my own, or any Man's; it blew very hard this Evening, and looked very black in the South-west, an ordinary gale; I kept a Light out all Night in the Poop for the Pink: this day all the Company eat of young Seals, and Penguins, and commended them for good Food; I judged this a very fit Harbour to fit the Ship in, for the main Mast must be unrig'd, and a new gang of shrouds fitted, and Ballast be had; and it might be a means to fall in with the Pink, for from the tops of the Hills we could see a great way into the Sea, so that if she should come near the Coast, we could not miss her. We found 2 Springs of fresh Water, one in a Valley close by the Water-side, in a gully above the Ship, half a mile up the River; the other up a Valley between the Rocks, just a-brest where the Ship rode, about half a mile from the River's side, right from Coopers-Bay in the same Valley; these Springs are but small,and the Water's a little brackish or saltish, for in the dry Valleys the Earth is naturally saltish; the Ground and Rocks have a white Rhime of Salt-petre hanging on them; I went into the Land 2 miles North-West., and saw the Country hilly, and dry Land without Wood or Water; some craggy Rocks and Valleys, low, but dry and of a Salt-petre nature; here and there some Bushes with prickly Branches, and Leaves like White-Thorn Bushes in England; the lesser Bushes have small dry Gauls growing on them, with a small dry Seed as hot in the Mouth as Pepper; not a Tree to be seen: the Soil is gravelly and sandy generally, with tufts of dry seared Grass growing on it; I digged in several places but saw nothing but gravelly Sand and Rocks; no sort of Metals or Minerals; I looked also among the broken Rocks for Metals, but saw no sign of any; from the tops of the Hills I could see a great way into the Land, which is all Hills and Downs like Cornwall: toilsom travelling to those that were not used to it; l could travel as far in an hour as many of my Men could in two; to day we saw nine Beasts feeding on the Grass, very like Deer, but larger, and had longer Necks, but no Horns; reddish coloured on the Back and aloft, whitish under their Bellies and upper Flanks; when we had got within a Furlong of them they fell a neighing like Horses, one answered another, and then all run away.
Tuesday March 1. Fair Weather this Morning, Wind at North, a fine gale and a cold Air. This Forenoon I filled the Casks out of the Spring, and dug them deeper; I set up a long Pole with a white Cloath upon it, on a Hill near a mile into the Land, where 'twas most likely to be fecn by the Inhabitants; with it I left Beads, a Looking glass, a Knife, a Hook and an Hatchet, to invite the People of the Country to show themselves, for I was willing to see 'em, that I might discover what they had; but though I went about the Hills this Afternoon, I could see neither People, Fire, nor Smoak. I saw three Oftriches, but could not get near enough to make a shot at them; they were feeding on Grass, and at first sight of me ran away; I had a Greyhound with me, which I turn’d loose upon ‘em, who gave Chafe to one of them, and at last gave her a turn, which she recovered, took to the Hills, and so escaped; they are grey coloured, and larger than a great Turky-cock in England; they can't fly, but have long Legs, and trust to their running: I saw two handfuls of Wooll among the Grass, where the Natives had made a fire; it was the Spanish red Wooll, which they bring out of India,and very fine; I brought it away with me, and set the Greyhound at 3 of the large Beasts like Deer, but they were too swift for him: Night coming on I returned on Board; at 7 a Clock this Night the Wind came to the North, a fresh gale, and hasey Weathcr; no sight of the Pink to day: I could see a long way on the Sea: at 10 a Clock it rain'd, and the Wind came to the South-East.
Friday March 4. Fair Weather this Morning, the Wind at East, a fine gale, I went ashore and filled fresh water, the rest of the Seamen fitted rigging; this day at 12 a Clock I went with both the Boats, and forty Men to Seal-Island, into the Harbour, every Man with his Staff and Club; we landed, drove the Seals up together, beset them round, and in half an hours time killed four hundred young and old; striking them on the head kills them presently; as soon as they were knocked down we cut their throats, that they might bleed well whilst they were hot; then loading both the Boats with them, I carried them to the Bay where the Tent was, landed, and laid them upon the Rocks; to Night the Boat fetch'd them all off: the great Male Seals are as big as Calfs and resemble a Lion in their shaggy Necks, Heads, and Faces, as well as in their Roar; the Females are like Lionesses before, only they are hairy all over like a Horse, and smooth, and the Male is smooth all over his hind-parts; their shape is very deformed, for their hind-part tapers till it come to a point, where grow two Fins or Feet, two more grow out of their Breast, so that they can go on Land a great pace, and climb Rocks, and Hills of a good height; they delight much to lie and sleep ashore; some are very large, upwards of eighteen Foot in length, and thicker about than a But in the Bilge, and excessive fat; there are thousands fourteen foot long, the common sort are about five foot and all very fat; they'l gape at you when you come to them, as if they would devour you, and ‘tis labour enough for two Men to kill one of the great ones with a Hand-spike, which is the best Weapon for that purpose.
Saturday March 5. Fair Weather, Wind at Soout-west, a fine gale. This Morning we went ashore to slay some Seals, and cut the Bodies in good handsome pieces, and salted it up well in Bulk on Deal-boards, ashore, that the blood might drain from it; the Meat looks as well and as white as Lamb, and is very good Victuals now, but when 'tis a little salt it will eat much better; those we drefs'd were all young Seals, for they sucked their Dams, who as soon as they come ashorc bleat, immediatly come her young ones, and bleat about her like Lambs, and suck her; one old Female suckles four or five, and beats away other young ones that come near, whence I believe they have four or five at a time; the young ones which we killed and eat were as big as a midling Dog; we cut the fat off of the Great ones, and made Oil of it for the Lamps, and other uses in the Ship; the Oil of the young ones we fried, and eat with our Provisions; it is very sweet and good to fry any f'ood with; our Men will have it to be as good as Olive Oil; most of my Men to day gathered of those green Pease-leaves and other Herbs for Salads, which some eat raw, some boiled; it is refreshing to their Bodies.
Sunday March 6. Blowing Weather, Wind at West: This day, after Prayers, I went ashore on the South-side of the River, and travelled eigh miles into the Land, South-west and by West, having tweleve armed Men with me; my Lieutenant went up the River in the Boat nine or ten miles, to see for People that way; my other Lieutenant went on the North-side with ten armed Men to see for People, and view the Land; I found in my Travels one of those great Beasts like a Deer, dead and whole, the Vermin had not touched him; all his Back had pretty long Wooll of the colour of dried Rose-leaves, and down his sides, his Belly white Wooll; he was as big as a small Colt, he had a long Neck, a Head like a Sheep, so was his Mouth and Ears; his Legs very long, and Cloven-footed like a Deer, a short bushy Tail of a reddish colour; no Horns nor ever had any, it was a Male: I believe these Beasts are Peruvian Sheep; (Guianacoes). I had his Paunch opened, and searchcd for the Bezoar-stone in it, and in the Pipe to the Stomach, I turned them inside outward, but found none; I had heard WestIndian Spaniards say, that they have taken the Bezoar-stone of Guianacoes, and therefore opened this, which I take to be the same Beast. In travelling to day I saw several herds of them, sometimes ten, thirty, or forty together; I could not get near enough to shoot at them; they neigh like young Horses, and so wander away: I saw nine Ostriches, but they would not suffcr me to come within shot of them; I let the Greyhound at them, but they out-run him up the Hills: we saw a Fox, a wild Dog, and five or six Hares, of which the Greyhound killed one; they are shaped like English Hares, and much larger, and instead of a Tail have a little stub about an inch long, without Hair on it; they have holes in the ground like Coneys: no Woods to be seen, only a few Bushes like White-Thorns. The Land is dry, of a sandy gravelly Soil, in large rounding Hills, not very high, but in Downs and Valleys, bearing nothing but Grass; here and there are gullies of fresh Water in the Valleys, which is made in the Winter-time when the Snow dissolves: I saw several places of salt Water in the Land, which is occasioned by the natural saltness of the Earth; here are no Fruits nor Herbs: When I was at the farthest, and on a Hill, I could not see any sign of People, or Woods, but still Hills and Valleys as far as we could descry; no Birds to be seen but Kites, which are like those in Europe, and small Birds like Sparrows, and Linnets; some Flies and Humble-bees here: we saw some small four-footed Animals running in the Grass; speckled Grey, shapcd shaped like a small Creature in England called an Est, Newt or Lizard; no Adder nor Snake, nor any venomous Creature; Cattle would live here very well, such as Horses, Cows, Sheep, Goats, &c. Evening growing upon us I returned to the Ship, and 'twas within Night when we got aboard our Boat, and ten a Clock when we entered the Ship; I found on Board my Lieutenant that went up the River, but they which went on the North side were not come back; up the River they saw five small Islands, which had Sea-fowls on them and Bushes for fcwel; the River grows broader upwards and has several Rocks in it; on the shoar they saw Guianacoes, Ostrichcs, and Hares; no People, Fire or Smoak; they saw where People had been, and Fires made, and Muscles and Lumpets roasted; no fresh Water nor Wood, nor any Metal or Mineral; the Land hilly with Grass on it: At twelve a Clock to Night those that went on the North-side came aboard; they had been about eight miles into the Land North-west, and saw no People, but found where People had been, and made Fires in the Grass, and Grass laid to fire the Bushes; also where some had lain on open places, and sert little Bushes in Half-moons, to shelter them from the Weather; on the top of a Hill they made a fire with Grass to see if any would answer them; they sat down by it all day, but could see none made any where else: the Land is in rounding large Hills, not very high, but like Downs, as the Coast of Yorkshire about Burlington; no Woods nor Trees seen, nor fresh Water; here and there a Bush growing in a Valley; indifferent good Grass; the Soil gravelly and sandy, and some ridges of Rocks; they saw Guianacoes, Ostriches, Hares, and Kites; several little Creatures like Ests; no kind of Fruit or Berry, Mineral or Metal: I charged them as they travelled in any Gullies where Water had run to search for grains of Gold, or other Metal, &c. for Gold is found in grains in such Gullies, and much Gold is found in the Land on the other side, not two hundred Leagues distant from us; much Salt-peter hangs on the Earth where Water has been, in a kind of Flower; the plashes [places?] of Water they met with were as salt as Brine, which the Earth made. I saw Smelts here eighteen Inches long lying dead on the Shore, but hitherto have not seen one Oyster, or other shell-Fish, crawfish, Lobster, or Crab, though 'tis possible the place may have 'em all. Whilst we were standing by the Water-side, a Seal chased on shore a Fish as large as a Mackrel and like a Mullet; one of the Men took it up, and dressed it, when he came on Board, 'twas excellent good; here must be a great quantity of Fish to maintain all the Seals, Penguins, and other Fowls that live upon nothing else, and yet are all extream fat, and innumerable in multitude; besides what Creatures we have not seen yet; I have seen Seals in this Harbour swimming with their heads above water, with large Fish in their Mouths.
Sunday March 13. Indifferent Weather, Vind at West, a fresh gale; The Air cold this Morning. I went up the River in my Boat with fourteen Men armed; I past the Island where the brushy Bushes are, and where we took the young Shags; there the River grows broader, near a mile from the North shore over to the South, and continues that breadth four miles, then it becomes narrower, and turns away to the South-west; at this turning is an Island of a mean height and Rocky, bearing some small Bushes and Grass; I went upon it, and saw a Post of five foot long set up (it had been the timber of a Ship ) with a piece of Board about a foot square nailed to it, at the foot of it one of my Men took up a piece of Sheet-Lead, and gave it to me, it had this Inscription engraven on it,
§ Narbrough does not provide the English translation seen above.
In a hole of the Post lay a latten or tin Box (which we found by a long Plug that stuck in the hole) with a sheet of written Paper enclosed in it, but so eaten by the rust of the Box, that 'twas not to be read; I cut out with my Knife upon a Board the Ship's Name, and the date of the Year and Month, which I nailed to the Post; and brought away the Lead with me, and named the place Le Mair's lsland: we found on it several pieces of Boards, of the Wreck of some Ship, that had been burned; they were drove up here by the Tide; the People of the Country can't get upon this Island: From hence I went on the North side of the River two miles into the Land; no Trees to be seen, but many Ostriches and Guianacoes in many places; the Soil is marly and good, the Hills not very high, but plain large Downs, with Grass on them all over; digging in two or three places I found sandy dry ground near a foot deep, then Marle: In my opinion it might be made excellent Corn-ground, being ready to Till; 'tis very like the Land on New-market Heath; no People to be seen; I searched the Gullies and broken Rocks, for grains of Gold or Minerals, but found neither: I returned to the Boat again, rowed farther under the shore, landed, and mounted a steep high Hill to view the Country; on the top of this rocky Hill grow small Bushes: I could see the Course of the River a long way further, and the Land all Grass; here and there a white spot of Marle on the side of a Hill; no People to be seen nor Boats on the River; I came down to the Boat: several Creeks run from hence a mile or two into the Land: I crofs'd the River to the South-east shore; we made the Boat sail in a Creek in a valley, and went all hands up the Land three miles; we saw many Guianacoes, and Ostriches, but could not come within shot of them; I saw the Foot steps of five Men that had been upon the Oar; I measured my Foot with them, which was larger and longer by half an Inch than any of them; we could not see any People: it being near Night we plucked up Grass, and laid it to the best advantage for sheltcr; here we lay all Night, keeping watch two by two; cold Air to Night, wind at West.
Monday March 14. Fair Weather but cold. This Morning by day-light we turn'd out, and marcht into the Land four miles South-west and by South; we could not find any fresh Water; we made a Fire on the Grass, but saw no sign of any People; we saw Guianacoes, Hares, Foxes, wild Dogs, pretty large, and a grey Cat like an English one, running up the Hills: today we caught an Armadillo; the Dogs put her to ground; they have holes like Coneys; we soon dug her out, 'twas as big as a great Hedg-hog, and not much unlike one; the Armadillo is cased over the Body with a shell, shutting one under another like shells of Armour; the Dogs could nor hurt her: we saw Rats in many places, and a kind of Polecat, with two white streaks on the Back, all the rest black; our Dogs killed two of them; they stink much, several 0striches, some Partridges and many Kites: the Land in fair Hills Without Wood or fresh Water; the Soil a sandy Gravel with Grass all over it; no Mineral or Metal seen. This afternoon we returned to our Boat, and went through a Creek two miles long, which is dry at low water, and not more than thirty foot broad; it makes a fair Island of a mean heighth, plain on the top, and Grass growing all over it, but no Wood nor Water upon it; the greatest part of it is a sandy marly Soil; 'tis two miles long, and half a mile broad; the Greyhound killed two Hares on it presently and we saw above twenty; I called it Hare-Island; it is adjacent to the South-shore; eight miles up the River from the narrow, I went down the River and went aboard: this Evening cold Air, Wind at West, a stout Gale; towards Morning it came to the North; I cannot perceive the Indians have any Canoas or other Boats here.
March 24. Blowing Weather, Wind at West. We fetch'd all our things off the shore, and got the Ship ready to Sail; I went ashore on the South side to the peeked Rock, and found it a natural Rock, standing on a small round Hill, as if it had been built there by Man; it hath a Cleft on the top of it as big in circumference as a But 'tis near forty foot high above the Hill it stands on; about it lie little lumps of Rocks; I saw nothing else worth notice, so I return'd to the Ship; the biggest stick growing in or near this Harbour, or in the Countries as far as we went, which was twenty Miles, would not make a Helve for a Hatchet, but there are Bushes which will serve for firing at Sea: before Night I had all things on Board, and the Ship fitted with intent to sail next Morning, and look'd along the Coast for the Pink, till I arrived at Port St. Julian's Harbour; fresh Water is scarce in Port Desier Harbour in the Summer time; the places from whence I fetch'd Water, are small Springs on the North-side, out of which I filled near forty Tuns; the first Spring is on the Northside, as you enter the Harbour half a mile up a Valley, in a gully of Rocks: it bears North-norrhwest from the lower Rock; that we called Peckets Well, is a mile up the River, within a Bow-shot of the salt Water, 'tis in a gully: the Land in these Valleys has very green and sweet Grass, and abundance of wild Pease; small Nut-galls growing on the Bushes, but in no great quantity, and but few Bushes; Salt may be made here, for on the Shore-side, and on the Rocks I gathered several handfuls of good Salt.
March 25. Gentlemen, You are by me desired to take notice, that this Day I take possession of this Harbour and River of Port Desier, and of all the Land in this Country, on both Shores, for the use of his Majesty King Charles the Second, of Great Britain, and his Heirs; God save our King, and fired three Ordnancc.
Saturday March 26. Wind at West, a stout gale. I stood to the Northward; this Morning at six a Clock when the Sun appeared above the East Horizon, the Moon set in the West-horizon, being eclipsed at London at Eleven a Clock, ten minutes in the Forenoon; but here at six a Clock thirty minutes past, which gives four hours forty minutes difference of time, between the Meridian of London and the Meridian of Cape Blanco; which Cape lies in the Latitude of 47 d. 20 m. South; on the South-East Coast of America, where I saw this Eclipse 70 degrees in Longitude to the Westward of the Meridian of London, by this Observation; I could not see the whole Eclipse the Heavens being clouded; I find Cape Blanco, by my account of Sailing, to lie in the Longitude of 69 d. 6 m. to the Westward of the Meridian of London; If the Moon had not been clouded, I might have been exact in the Longitude, but I presume my Account is not much out.
Cape Blanco lies in the Latityde of 47 d. 20 m. South; and in Longitude from the Lizard, West, 61 d. 56 m. and in Meridian distance from the Lizard, West, 1014 Leagues, 1 Mile. 6/10.
Port Desier in America, lies in the Latitude of 47 d. 48 m. South, and in Longitude from the Lizard, West, 61 d. 57 m. Meridian distance from the Lizard, West, 1015 Leagues, 2 Miles, 6/10.
Penguin Island, or the plentiful Isles, Latitude 47 d. 55 m. South, and in Longitude from the Lizard, West, 6 d. 57 m. Meridian distance from the Lizard, West, 1014 Leagues, 2 Miles.
Variation of the Compass here is Easterly 17 d. 30 m.
April 1. The Sweepstakes off of Seal's Bay in the Latitude of 48 d. 10 m.South, on the Coast of Patagonia.
Saturday April 2. Fair Weather this Morning, Wind at North-north-west a fine gale. I filled [sailed?] at Day-light, and steered away South-south-west, and South and by West by my Compass, as the Coast lies; I sailed along in twenty Fathom-water: black Sand distant from the shore near three Leagues: this forenoon at nine a Clock, I saw a small flat Island to the Westward of me, about a League off the Land; it lies in the Latitude of 48 d. 40 m. South; the Land against it is high, in large Hills, and some round copling tops; two Leagues more to the Southward, the Land is low, in a great Plain, and a Beach by the Sea-side, but the shore against this Island is rocky; I was two Leagues East from the flat Island, and had twenty three fathom black Sand; I haled close in for the shore, and fail'd within five Miles of it; all along from this Island to Port St. Julian I sounded as I sail'd along, and had 18 or 20 fathom fine black Sand; the Land is low in a Valley; the Sea-shore is a Beach, here and there a Rock; it is in a long Beach for four Leagues; after you are to the Southward of the Flat-Island one League, the shore lies South-south-west and North-north-east; at the South-end of this Beach inland are high round Hills, but at the Sea-side is a steep white Cliff, of an indifferent heighth with a black streak in it; over the Cliff the Hill rounds up to the top, having some small black Bushes growing on the side; no Wood or Tree seen. In this Bay is Port St. ]ulian; the Harbour's mouth is in the middle of the Bay, but you cannot see it without, for one Point shutting in the other; you must send your Boat in to discover the Harbour at Low-water, and the Bar without, for 'tis a barred Harbour: the Land in the Country over Port St. Julian, on the West-side, is high copling round Hills, like blunt Sugar-loaves on the top; ‘tis the highest Land I saw in all the Country, and there are no such Hills besides on the Coast; the Land is plain to the South without any Hill, as far as we could see at this time: this Afternoon it proved a Calm; I anchored in the Bay before St. Julian, in twelve fathom Water, black oary Land, the Harbour's mouth bearing West-southwest of me, about two Leagues off: I sent in my Boat to discover the Harbour, and see if the Pink was there, which returned to Night at six a Clock; my Lieutenant told me there was a safe Harbour, and Water enough for a bigger Ship, but no Pink, nor any sign of her having been there; now I despaired of ever seeing her more, after my hopes were frustrated here; nevertheless I doubted not the success of my Voyage, though the Company thought 'twould be dangerous being a lone Ship, a stormy Sea to sail in, and unknown Coasts to search out, and if we should happen to run aground any where, could cxpect no relief; these suspicions I soon put out of their Heads, by telling them of the great Riches of the Land, and that Captain Drake went round the world in one Ship, when in those days there were but ordinary Navigators; and was it for us to question our good fortune, who beyond Comparison are better Seamen, if we would put our selves in Action; and for me, I would expose no Man to more danger than my self in the attempt. Calm to Night; I rode fast, a small Tide running where I rode; the Water ebb'd near three fathom perpendicular: it is near nine Leagues from the Flat Island to Saint Julian, South-south-west: and North-north-east as the shore lies. The Mouth of Port Saint Julian, in Latitude 49 d. 10 m. South, and in Longitude from the Lizard 63 d. 10 m. and in Meridian distance from the Lizard West 1030 Leagues; by an Amplitude here, the Compass has varied 6 d. 10 m. East.
Wednesday April 3. Fair Weather, Wind at West, a small gale. Frosty and cold Air, no sign of the Pink: I went ashore and haled the Seyne on the East-side at the first: of the Flood we caught five hundred Fishes, as big as large Mullets, and much like them, grey, and full of scales: some as big as a Man's Leg; we caught them all in four hours time, returned aboard, and divided them among the whole Ship's Company: they eat admirably well; many good Muscles lie on the Rocks, and Oyster-shells on the Shore-side, and growing in Veins on the Rocks, but no Meat in them: Wind at West, to Night, a fresh gale.
Monday April 18. Wind at South-west, a fresh gale. Cold Air and some Snow this Morning; the Winter is come strong and stormy, so that 'twill be impossible to hold the Coast into the Strcights; for the Wind blows altogether from the West or West-southerly, and in such Gusts as will force a Ship off the Coast. This day I ordered my Purser to serve the Company Brandy-wine for their Allowance, at a Quart per Week a Man: I got a Boats lading of the Wood of the Country aboard for firing; to Night it blew hard at South-west; all the Company eat salt Seal, and Penguins for their Allowance: sweet and very good Meat,and keeps well and long in Salt.
Friday April 22. Wind at South west, a stiff gale, and cold Air. This Morning I went ashore on the North west side with twenty Men to the Salt pond, which is rusted all over like a Pavement, with very white and good Salt, two Inches thick, for two miles long: in February here's Salt enough to fill a thousand Ships; we filled two Bags and laid up near two Tuns out of the Water, for there was Water over the Salt, which began to decay with the Rain and Weather beating on it: at Night I returned aboard, we brought as much Salt with us as filled a Punchion, very good white Stone salt, whiter than French-Salt, and of a very pleafant smell; I saw some Guianacoes, and Ostriches: the Hills and Valleys dry Earth, and Grass on them: on the higher Hills lies Snow, no People, but many places where they had made fires, and lain under a Bush for shelter; no Mineral or Metal, Tree, or Fruit.
Wednesday April 27. Close Weather, and little Wind; a cold Air, it freezes hard, the Ice bears a Man.
Thursday April 28. Wind at West and by South, a fine gale, cold frosty Weathcr. We un rig'd the Ship, and made all snug, intending to Winter in this Harbour; the Ice will not suffer us to pass the Streights; the Winds are so stormy, and generally out of the Western quarter; the Nights so long and cold, that the passage is impossible this Winter. The Port I found safe to ride in, and good refreshment to be had of Fowls: as Ducks, Peekes, and Divers, &c. In the Spring I may be ready to sail to the Southward, when we shall have the year before us, and the Sun in the Southern Signs, which will give long Days and short Nights, and temperate Weather; Wind at North north-east this Evening, and Rain: it blew a great storm to Night, the Boat sunk at the Ship's stern, and lost the Oars: less Wind towards Night, and veared to the West.
Friday May 6. Wind at West-north-west, a fine gale. went ashore on the North-west side with thirty Men, and travelled seven or eight miles up the Hill, saw no People: the Land is great Grass Downs in most places; and on the tops of the Hills, and in the Ground are very large Oystershells they lie in Veins in the Earth, and in the firm Rocks and on the sides of Hills in the Country; they are the biggest Oyster-shells that ever I saw; some six, some seven inches broad, yet not one Oyster to be found in the Harbour; whence I conclude, they were here when the Earth was formed: no sign of Mine or Metal, noWoods or Tree; We found a good Spring of fresh Water up in the Hills, ir drains into salt Water-swashes: We saw several Salt-water Ponds six miles in the Land, made by the saltness of the Earth; we saw Ostriches, Guianacoes, and a Fox. I made a Fire on the top of the highest Hill, but could see no answer; I returned aboard with my Company very weary; some of my Men fetched Salt to day: fair Weather to Night.
Friday May 13. Indifferent Weather, Wind at West-south-west, a fine gale. This day we fetched Salt: a Gentleman of my Company, Mr. John Wood, walking on the Island of Justice, found three small small pieces of Gold wire in two Muscle-shells: which Shells were made together by a green Gutstring: the Gold was to the value of two shillings English, and had been hammered, the wire as big as a great Pin.
Monday June 6. Cloudy cold Weather,Wind at South-west, a fresh gale. This day I went ashore with sixteen Men, and travelled ten miles West into the Land; the Hills there are covered with Snow: 'tis very cold, we could not go any further for Snow; and the Air is so cold that we could not endure to lie on the ground; on the Hill that I was on, we could see nothing but Hill beyond Hill; no Woods, nor Trees, nor Bushes, all Grass Downs: the Land is flat on the tops of the Hills; fresh Water runs down in several places, which is melted Snow, and when the Water leaves running, there's no Snow. I saw many Guianacoes, and Ostriches; no People or sign of any: close by the Water-side we saw many places where they had lain on open Hills in the Snow, and some places where they had killed and eat Guianacoes and Ostriches; they make but small Fires with little sticks; I do not find they roast their flesh at them, for we saw some raw Flesh hanging to the Bones, which they had gnawed with their Teeth: their Fires are only to warm their Children's Fingers, as we imagine: I gathered some handfuls of Guianacoes Wool that lay here; I am persuaded these People must needs see us travelling to and fro every day, but won't come near or be seen by us: they live like wild Beasts, or rather worse, for sometimes they must be in great want of Food; here's neither Fruit, Root, or Herb for it: The Land is a dry gravelly Soil, with Sand, and in many places a Marle two foot below the Surface; the Grass, which is dry, grows in knots, not very long but thick; in the Valleys the Earth is of a Petery or nitrous Nature; Ostriches seen; no sign of Metal or Mineral; I and my Company have looked in most places where we travelled for it: to Night we got down but very weary.
Tuesday June 7. close dark Weather, Wind at North-east and by East, a fair gale: a new Moon to day, fine Weather to Night, but cold; the Stars near the Pole Antartick are very visible; some of the small Stars in the Constellation of little Hydra are near the Pole; Here are many good Stars near the Pole, good for Observation, of the first and second Magnitude: the Star at the South-end of Ariadne, the Star at Hydra's Head; the Star in the Peacock's eye, and the Stars in Tucan's bill, and the Stars in Tucan's thigh and back; the Stars in Grus's head and wing and body; but the brightest Stars are the Stars in the former foot of Centaurus and the Crosiers; the other Stars are of the third, fourth and fifth Magnitude: The two Clouds are seen very plainly, and a small black Cloud, which the foot of the Crosiers is in, is always very visible when the Crosiers are above the Horizon, as they are alway here in these Latitudes. The Heavens in this South Hcmisphere are as the Heavens in the North Hemisphere; but no Stars within eighteen degrees of the Pole fit for Observation; no Pole-star, as the Star in the Tail of the little Bear is in the North: the Air cold to Night, but very healthy for stirring Men; I have not had my Finger ached as yet; a Man hath an excellent stomach here; I can eat Foxes and Kites as savourily as if it were Mutton; every Fox and Kite as we kill, we eat, which is ever now and then one killed. Nothing comes amiss to our stomachs, not one Man complains of cold in his Head or of Coughs. Young Men well grown and of good shape are most fit for this Country, it being a dry and an hungry Air, and Provisions to be got with pains. The Ostriches are nothing so big as the Ostriches in Barbary, nor of the Colour nor Feather; these are grey on the Back, and shaggy Feathers of no use, and the Feathers on their Bellies are white; they have long Legs and small Wings; they cannot fly; they have a long Neck, and a small Head, and beaked near like a Goose; they are much like a great Turky-cock, and good lean dry Meat and sweet: to Night I came aboard; it blew fresh at West.
Wednesday June 22. Wind at West-north west, a stout gale. This day I went ashore on the East-side, saw no People; this day Mr. John Wood went ashore on the West side, and three Men with him; they were armed; they travelled into the Land West and by North about four miles; where they saw seven People of the Country on a Hill, making a noise and wafting them to the Ship: Our Men went up the rise of the Hill to them; three of the Indian Men came to Mr.Wood with their Bows and Arrows in their Hands, and a loofe skin about their Bodies, and a Furr-skin about their Heads, and pieces of skins about their Feet, and all the other parts of their bodies naked; they were painted red and white on their Faces; they would not come so near as to let our Men touch them, but stepped back as you moved forward; they continuing their noise, and wafting with their Hands towards the Ship, and kept talking, but no Man could understand them: they repeated Ozse, Ozfe, very often; they have an harsh Speech and speak in the Throat; they received any thing that you cast to them on the ground. Mr. Wood gave them a Knife, and a Shash [a scarf], and a Neckcloath, and a bottle of Brandy: they would not drink; Mr. Wood could not perceive any Bracelets they had, or any thing about them save their Skin: they are People of a middle stature, and well-shaped; tawny Olive-colour'd, black Hair, not very long: they seem to be of a rude behaviour, for they returned nothing for what they received, nor took no notice of any thing; the rest of their Company stayed at the Hill: they can endure much cold, for their Legs, Buttocks, and lower parts are naked. Mr. Wood was taller than any of them, and he judged the eldest of the three to be upwards of fifty years old, the other thirty. They seemed to be very fearful; they took their own time; and went away into the Land. Mr.Wood returned aboard and acquainted me with what he had seen. This Night we saw a Fire in the Hills. It blew hard to Night at West. They have small Dogs With them; they would not have come near our People, if they had not fallen accidentally in the Hills and Valleys with them. I have thought that they have heard of the cruel dealings of the Spaniards, and dare not trust us.
Saturday July 2. Wind at West, a fine gale. I went ashore on the East-side; we killed a great Guianacoe with the Greyhound. I looked in his Paunch for the Bezoar-stone, but found nothing. I travelled to and fro but saw no People: I saw where People had made earthen Pots, and had glased them, for there lay some of their stuff run together: at Night I went aboard.
Sunday July 3. Wind at South, close Weather. The Guianacoe weighed, cleaved in his Quarters, two hundred and fifty pounds neat. He served all the Company for a days Flesh, and is good Meat.
Tuesday July 12. Close Weather, and little Wind at North and by West. I went up to the head of the Harbour, but saw no People: There is in the Fullers-Earth Cliffs at the head of the Harbour, a Vein made like rotten Ising-glass; I took some out, but cannot find it good for any thing: I digged in the Cliff, but saw nothing to be taken notice of. I saw in two places pieces of floor Timbers of a Ship; they have laid a long time rotting. We saw that the biggest of thei Bushes here, have been cut down by some Christian People. I saw wooden Plates, and a piece of Cork, and a piece of an old Oar: some Christian Ship had been here formerly. I lay ashore to Night.
Sunday July 31. Fair Weather, Wind at South-west a stiff gale. The Weather as cold as it is in England in the height of Winter, and the Air rather sharper and dryer; I have now twelve Men lame with the cold, and their Legs and Thighs are turned as black as a black Hat, in spots, the cold having chilled the Blood; yet they use bathing and ftuping those places, and all that they can to prevent it, but it rather encreaseth on them than orherwise: These are such People as I could not make stir by any means; they that stir are as well as any Men in the World can be.
Tuesday Auguft 2. Close Weather, Wind at South-west, a gale and cold Air. We fall on fitting of our Rigging and getting the Ship fit: Here are hundreds of Guianacoes in companies near the Water-side: my Greyhound is lame, so that I cannot make her run; also here are many Ostriches together with many green Plovers at the Water-side, and some Swans, but not full so large as ours: They are white, save a black-Head, and half the Neck and Legs black: Here are some white Geese; as European Geese, the brant-Geese are some white, some black and grey; The Mallards and Ducks are grey; and the Teals are grey.
Tuesday August 16. Close Weather, Wind at West and at North-west, a fine gale. I sent the Boat for Water to a Swash on the East-side; two of my Men saw two of the People of the Country on the East-side behind a Bush; my Men went toward them; they went away and left a bundle of Skins under the Bush; my Men made signs to speak with them, but they would not stay; my Men did not go after them but sat down, they would not stay; they were but of a middle stature: my Men brought the Bundle aboard to shew it to me, and two mungrel Dogs, which were coupled together. I opened the Bundle and it was several bags of Skins, with red Earth and white Earth, and Soot or Paint in a Bag: this is the Trade they paint themselves with; they had Flint-stones and Arrow-heads in the Bundle; I searched the Bundle all over to see for grains of Gold, but could not find any: There were Bracelets of Shells, and bits of Sticks, and braided Thongs, and Arrows, and Muscle-shells, and Armadillo-shells, and a small point of a Nail in a stick for a Bodkin: Their Skins were pieces of Seal-skins, and pieces of Guianaco-skins, sewed together with small Guts; all very old aud full of holes, and smelt of grease: There were pieces of Flints made fast with a green Gut, in the split of a Stick, which they hold fast to knock their Arrow-heads into shape: There were also pieces of Sticks to get Fire with. This was all that was in the Bundle; it was made fast with Leather-thongs, braided round like Whip-cord, and the Dogs were coupled with such strings: The Muscleshells are their Knives. I put all things up in the Bag, and made it fast. Their Dogs are much of the Race of Spanish Dogs; a good large mungrel Cur, butvery tame; any Man might handle them; they were grey in colour,and painted red in spots: they were very lean; there were two great Staves of four foot long, which was tough Cane in short joints: I carried them ashore next day.
Tuesday August 30. Foggy close Weather this Morning, Wind at North. We travelled away West into the Land ten or twenty mile farther: The Land all dry, with Grass, and Bushes in some places like Thorns; the Hills high, and many, and Snow on the tops; no Woods, nor Trees to be seen; Fresh-water comes running out of the Hills in a fine Rivulet; no Fruit; many sedgy Bushes grow on the Brink, and brave green Grass, and a green Herb of a pretty strong hot taste; some Teal in the water, and Water-birds; this is all I saw about the Rivulet. Many large Ponds in the Country, but salt Water in those Ponds; we saw Fowls like Herons, but all red; in the Valleys we saw hundreds of Guianacoes in a company, and twenty Ostriches: some Hares and some Partridges, greyer and bigger than ours; some Snipes and small Birds; several Penne-wrens: we saw several Kites, and small Hawks, and Owls; we caught two Armadilloes: I saw two Foxes and a wild Dog, and many brant-Geese: the Land is in Hills and Valleys as far as we could see, and bad travelling on foot; the Soil is gravelly and dry Sand, of a Salt-petre nature; the Grass in some places long and dry, and in some places short and dry; the Hills are rounding aloft like large Downs: We saw red Earth in some places, such as the Indians use; we saw the Footsteps of People in many places in the Clay, and places where they had been, and had killed Guianacoes, and made a fire there; I gathered Guianacoes-Wooll, and Ostriches Feathers were scattered about the place, and Bones: there lay the Skulls of three People, no flesh on them; they were very clean and no larger than the Skulls of European Men; smooth and even Teeth, close set; one of those Skulls was broken. Whether these People be Man-eaters or not I cannot tell; I judge they have Wars one with another, by reason here are so few People in this great Land, and food enough to live on, and the Land all clear and good Pasturage for Cattle, and no Mountains; in all the Land there are Plains and grassy Meadows: here wants only Wood to build with; if that were here, it would be as good a Land as any part of America, for the Country is very healthy. This Afternoon it rained, and was very thick and foggy, so as we could not tell which way to go, although we had a Compass with us; for there is no going into the Land without one, because a Man will mistake his way, the Country is so open in great Plains and Downs: We were very much wet and cold; We got to Bushes, and there made a Fire and dried our selves: we stayed here all Night; we neither heard nor saw any thing to night.
Tuesday September 1. 1670. Close hasey Weather, the Wind at North, a small gale, so as I could not Sail this day; we tried for Fish, but caught none, the Water is so cold. I was on the Land, when I was at the farthest, twenty five miles West-north-west from the Harbour-mouth, and all things as I saw I have mentioned, excepting some small Creatures like Ests, which run in the Grass; no manner of Snake or venomous Creature have I seen in this Country; here are some Earth-worms, and Caterpillers, and other Buggs, but few in number: no wild Beast of prey, or any any other thing to annoy the Inhabitants, but Cold and Hunger: Here lies a large Country, open to receive any Inhabitants from forein Parts, and large enough to satisfie the Undertakers: The Land would produce European Grain, if planted here, and breed Cattle.
September 6. I considering my Men, being very weak, thought it most fit to go for Port Defier, and there to refresh the Men, for I knowing there I could have what Penguins and Seals, I would have, which are good Provisions; also I do intend to salt up a quantity of each, to carry to Sea with me, to lengthen out my Provisions. This Forenoon I steered from St. Julian North-northeast, and made what Sail I could to get to Port Desier: This Night it was a small gale, and veered to theWest-south-west; I judge it best to make my easie Sail in the Night, for fear of running up with the Eady Stone-Rocks before day light.
Wednesday September 21. Fair Weather to day, the Wind veerable round the Compass. This Morning I had both the Boats laden with Seals, and Penguins and Penguin-eggs; ten Men may kill ten thousand Penguins in less than an hours time; the Seals and Penguins are numberless: a Man cannot pass on the Island for them. This Evening I got on board and landed our lading ashore; fair Weathcr to Night. The Eggs are very good Nourishment, and the Fat serves for Oil to the Lamps.
Thursday September 22. Fair Weather, Wind at West. This day I divided the Eggs amongst the Men: we skinned the Seals and the Penguins, and saltcd the Flesh in bulk on the Rock, and covered it to keep the Wind from it: good Weathcr and little Wind to Night.
Friday September 30. The Wind at North this Morning; this forenoon it came to the South East, and blew hard, and rained. This day I went up the River about ten miles, and Don Carolus with me, and ten Men to see for People: we lay out all Night on the South-side, but saw no People; this Night the People of the Country came to our little Well, which is up in the Valley, and stole an Iron Pot, and three suits of Cloaths of the Mens, that were laid there a drying, with fome other Linnen; but did not meddle with the Beads, which are hung up on a Pole on the Hills, and they will not come near it nor meddle with it: The People of the Country have made in a Valley, the form of the Ship in Earth and bushes, and sluck up pieces of sticks for Masts, and reddcd the Bushes all over with red Earth; the Model I imagine is to record our Ship, for they cannot have any Records but by imitation: This Fancy we let alone untouched, only I laid a string or two of Beads on it and came away: close Weather to Night. These People must certainly have received somc injury in former times, from somc People that have been here in Shipping, otherwife they would come in sight of us; or else they have heard of the cruel dealings of the Spaniards toward the Indians, where they lived near: I have uscd all endeavours possibly by fair means to have Conference with them, but all is in vain.
Tuesday Tuesday October 11. The Wind at Wefs-southwest, a stout gale; very cold, Hail and sleety Snow to day. Our Men are all in good heaith and are lusty and fat, those which had the Scurvy are got very well with eating of fresh Meat, and such green Herbs as tbey can get on the shore, as green Pease-leaves and such trade; they mince it, fry it with Eggs and Seal-oil; and it hath raised every Man in as good health as they were at our coming out of England: We fare very well, and have great plenty of good Provisions: Here is Provision enough of Seals and Penguins, if salt be plenty, to lade Ships; I can confidently say, that on the Island of Penguins there are more Seals and Penguins at this prefent, than three hundred Tuns of Cask can hold, when dressed and salted, besides what are going off and coming on; If any Men should have occasion for provisions of Flesh, if they have Salt, here they may furnish themselves with what quantity shall seem fit for them, and I can assure them it will last four Months sweet, if not longer, if care be taken in bleeding, and dressing, and salting, as I have prescribed before; the Salt may also be had at Saint Julian’s Salt-pond in Summer-time; also I believe that Salt may be made at Port Desier in the Summer-time, for here is some dried Salt on the holes of the Rocks: Here are several Flats, where Men may make Pits and let in Salt-water, and so make Salt, as I have seen in other places.
The Penguin is a Fowl that lives by catching and eating of Fish, which he dives for, and is very nimble in the Water; he is as big as a brant-Goose, and weighs near about eight pounds; they have no Wings, but flat stumps like Fins: their Coat is a downy stumped Feather; they are blackish, grey on the Backs and Heads, and white about their Necks and down their Bellies: they are short legged like a Goose, and stand upright like little children in white Aprons, in companies together: they are full-necked, and headed and beaked like a Crow, only the point of their Bill turns down a little: they will bite hard, but they are very tame, and will drive in herds to your Boats-side like Sheep, and there you may knock them on the head, all one after another, they will not make any great hast away: Here are a great many Sea-Pies, and Ducks, and Ox-Birds, and Sea-Mews, and Gulls, and white Sea-Pigeons, and white-breasted Divers, and Dobchicks.
October 13. I weighed, and sailed out of Port Desier, standing Southward. Octob. 16. I was in Lat. 49 d. 8 m. South. Octob. 19 I passed by the Cape, called Beachy-Head by our Men, and the Hill of St. lves, Lat. 50 d. 10 m. The Compass has variation 16 d. 37m. Easterly. The Land here makes in a Bay, where the River of St. Cruce§ goes in.
§ Rio Santa Cruz, 50° 7’ S.
Octob. 21. We passed by Cape Fair-weather in 51 d. 30 m. South-Lat. Here goes on the River of Gallegoes. Octob. 22. We came to Cape Virgin Mary, at the entrance of the Streight of Magellan.
Cape Virgin-Mary, at the North-entrance, lies in the Latitude of 52 d. 26m. And in Longitude from the Lizard in England, West, 65 d. 42 m. Meridian distance from the Lizard in Leagues, West 1062 Leagues. Variation of the Compass here I find to be Easterly, 17 Degrees.
Here is Anchoring all about this Part of the Streights, in the fair way from Cape Virgin-Mary, till you come into the Narrow. I did not find much Tide any where hereabout, but in the Narrow, and there the Tide runs stronger than it does in the Hope a good matter; the floud Tide sets into the Streights, and the Ebb sets out; it keepeth its course, as on other Coasts: it is six hours Floud and two hours Ebb; it riseth and falls near four Fathom perpendicular; it is an high Water here, on the change day of the Moon at eleven of the Clock, as far as I could perceive. Many beds of Rock-weed are driving to and fro here. This day at two of the Clock I was a-breast of Point Possission; I streered from thence West-north-west about two Leagues, and then West and West south-west, and South-west and by South, rounding by the North-shore: As I shoaled my soundings I had 22, and 18, and 16, and 12, and 9 Fathoms, sandy, and sometimes gravelly Ground and pebble Stones; I sailed, rounding the shore being unacquainted, and could not tell certainly where the Narrow lay, for it was shut in one Land with the other, so as I could not see the opening: I was open of the Narrow at five a Clock, having a fine gale at North-north-east. I steered in Southwest. and by South into the chops of it, but could not get past a League into it; the Tide being bent out and run so strong as I could not stem it; I was in danger of running the Ship against steep Rocks, which lie in the North-side, she taking a shear with the Tide, and the Wind was a fresh gale at North-norrh-east. There grew long Rockweed on the Rocks; I went and sounded over them, and had five foot water on them, and fourteen Fathom by the side of them, next the Channel: they come trenting from the point of the narrow of the North-side, a mile off. At six of the Clock the Wind came to the North; at eight of the Clock it came to the North-West; it fell very dark and rained much; I was forced to fall back again out of the Narrow as well as I could; the shore I could not see, it was so dark; it fell a flat Calm, I finding twenty five Fathom water, pebble Stones and oary; I anchored and rode all Night; little Wind at South-west, and dark. lt is eight Leagues from the first Narrow to the second, and something better; the Course from one to the other is West and by South, and East and by North. This Reach from the first Narrow to the second is seven Leagues broad, from the North-shore to the South-shore; it shews like a little Sea when one comes into it, for we could not see to the second Narrow, till I had sailed therein three Leagues or more. At the point of the second Narrow, on the North-shore; up to the North-eastward a mile or two, there is a Bay on the North-shore, and a white Cliff of an ordinary height, which is called Cape St. Gregory: In this Bay you may ride in eight Fathom Water, fine clean sandy Ground, and a good half mile off the shore; This is a good Road, if the Wind be between the North-east and the Southwest to the Westward; the Winds are given most to blow on the Western-quarter. As I sailed thorow the second Narrow, I sounded in the fair way, and had twenty eight, and thirty Fathom small stones: The North-shore on this Narrow makes in a Bay at the East-point, and is white Cliffs all the way through: This Narrow lies throughout West-south-west, and East-north-east, and at the West end of the Narrow the Land is steep up, in white Cliffs, and the South part rounds away in a Fore-land: The South-shore rounds away South east from this Fore-land, and then it trents away to the Southward in low Land: The North-shore of this Narrow or Streight, rounds up to the Northward in white Cliffs, and falls into shores; there goes in a Harbour which hath four Fathom in the Channel, at High-water; it is a flat round Harbour within, and oary; I called this Oaz-harbour: When you are at the West-part of this Narrow, you will see three Islands come open, which shew to be steep up Cliffs: they lie Triangle-wise one of another; they are four Leagues distant from the Narrow, West-south-west: The smallest and Easter-most Isle is called St. Bartholomews;§ the biggest and Wester-most is called Elizabeth; † the middle-most and Souther-most is called S. George's, ‡ and by some Penguins Isle, and indeed there are many Penguins on it. This Evening I got up to Elizabeth's, and anchored in eight Fathoms and an half fine black Sand, two miles off the Island. The East-point bears South and by East of me: fair Weather all Night, the Wind at South and by West.
§ Now, Isla Marta, † Isla Isabel, ‡ Called St. Gregory by Wood. Now Isla Magdalena, or Penguin Island.
This Morning I went ashore on Elizabeth-Island, and at my landing nineteen of the Countrey-people came off the Hills to me: I had Conference with them, and exchanged Knives and Beads for such things as they had: which were Bows and Arrows, and their Skin-Coats, which are made of young Guianacoes skins; I gave them a Hatchet and Knives, and Beads, and Toys, Trumps, &c. they seem'd to be very well-pleased; I shewed them Gold, which they would have had; I made them signs, that if they had any, I would give them Knives and Beads, &c. for it, or if any where in the Land: I laid Gold and bright Copper into the Ground, and made as if I found it there, and looked to and fro on the Earth as if I looked for such things; they looked one on another and spake to each other some words, but I could not perceive that they understood me, or what I meant; nor that they knew Gold, or any other Metal: they would gladly have had every thing they saw; they tried to break the Boats Iron-grapenel with stones, and would have carried it away; I let them alone, and observed their actions and behaviour, which was very brutish: they catched at every thing they could reach, although I caused them to sit down, and I put strings of Beads about their Necks; still they desired more: My Lieutenant Peckett danced with them hand in hand, and several of my Men did dance with them, and made all the shew of Friendship as was possible; My Lieutenant changed his Coat for one of theirs, for they desired it because it was red, which colour they much esteem: I was in great hopes I might find Gold among them; I gave them all the courteous respect I could: After two hours Conference with them, I made signs I would go and get more things and come again to them; Theywent, and would have us to Land again under a Cliff, which I judge was their Design, to heave stones into the Boat to sink her, for the place was very convenient for such a purpose: They set themselves down on the Grass, and immediately set fire on the Grass on the side of the Bank: by what means they got Fire so suddenly l could not understand. I went and sounded the Channel between Elizabeth-Island, and St. Bartholomew's-Island, and found it a fair Channel to Sail through, of a mile broad nearest and deep Water: in the middle thirty eight Fathom, and nine and ten Fathom near the Shore-side, gravelly Sand.
These People are of a middle stature, both Men and Women, and well-limbed, and roundish Faced; and well shaped, and low Fore-headed; their Noses of a mean size, their Eyes of the mean and black; they are smooth and even toothed and close set and very white; small Ears: their Hair is smooth flag Hair, and very black and harsh on the fore-part; even and round; and the Locks of a mean length, both Men and Women alike: they are full Breasted, they are tawny Olive-coloured, and redded all over their Bodies with red Earth and Grease; their Faces dawbed in spots down their Cheeks with white Clay, and some black streaks with smut, in no Method; their Arms and Feet the like: they have small Heads and short Fingers: they are active in Body, and nimble in going and running; their Cloathing is pieces of Skins of Seals, and Guianacoes, and Otters skins sewed together, and fewed soft; their Garment. is in form of a Carpet, of about five feet square, or according to the largeness of the Person; this they wrap about their Bodies, as a Scottish Man doth his Plading: they have a Cap of the Skins of Fowls, with the Feathers on; they have about their Feet pieces of Skins tied to keep their Feet from the Ground: they are very hardy People to endure cold; for they seldom wear this loose Skin when they are stirring, but are all naked of Body from Head to Feet, and do not shrink for the Weather; for it was very cold when I saw them, and the Hills all cover'd with Snow: they have no Hair on their Bodies nor Faces, nor any thing to cover their privy Parts, excepting some of the Women, which had a Skin before them; otherwise the Men and Women are cloathed alike; only the Men have Caps and the Women none: The Women wear Bracelets of Shells about their Necks, the Men none; the Men are somewhat larger than the Women in Stature, and more fuller Fac'd; the Men have a harsh Language, and speak ratling in the Throat, and gross; the Women shiller [shriller?] and lower: they pronounce the word Urfah, but what it means I could not understand, nor one word they fpake; if they did not like any thing, they would cry Ur, Ur, ratling in their Throats: their Food is what they can get, either Fish or Flesh: they are under no Government, but every Man doth as he think fit; for they had no respect to any one, nor under any Obedience of any in this Company; neither did they make any shew of Worshipping any thing, either Sun or Moon, but came directly to us at our first going on Land, making a noise, and every Man his Bow ready strung, and two Arrows a Man in their Hands: their Bows are about an Ell long, and their Arrows are near eighteen Inches long, and neatly made of Wood, and headed with Flint-stones, neatly made broad-Arrow-fashion,well,fastened to the Arrow; and the other end is feathered with two Feathers, and tied on with the Gut of some Beast, when it is green and moist; the Bow-string is some twisted Gut. These People have very large mungrel Dogs, much like the race of Spanish Dogs, and are of several colours: I did not see any other domestick Creature they have, neither could I at this time see their Boats; for they lay at the other end of the Island, next the Main; they waited on this Island for an opportunity of fair Weather, to go to the other Islands for Penguins, there being great numbers of those Birds on the southermost of the three Islands, and many other white-breasted Divers.
October 30. To Night I anchored in a small Bay in eleven fathom Water, gravelly Ground, half a mile off the Shore; no Tide runs here as to thwart up a Ship; the Water riseth and falls perpendicular ten Feet. This Bay hath two Rivulets of fresh Water in it, and good Timbertrees of eighteen Inches through, and near forty Feet long: the Wood is much like a Beech; here are wild Currant-trees, and many such like Bushes: the Woods are very thick and green, and much old Wood lies on the Ground, so as there is no travelling into the Woods. I was ashore looking to and fro here three hours: I called this Freshwater Bay; this is near nine Leagues to the Southward of Sweepstakes Bay; Sand-point is a mean low Point, lies out more than the other Points of the Shore, and few Trees grow on it.
It is six Leagues from Fresh-water Bay, to Port Famen South and North from the one to the point of the other: that nearest Port Famen cannot be seen, as you come from the Northward, till you come to bring the Point S. Anne up on the North-west of you, for the Bay lies up in a little hook North-west, and the Land on the West-side of the Bay is low in a Point, and sandy, and some Grass grows on it, and much drift-Wood lies on it like a Carpenters-yard: a little within Land from the Water-side grow brave green Woods, and up in the Valleys, large Timber-trees, two foot throughout and some upwards of 40 Feet long; much like our Beech-timber in England; the Leaves of the TreeS are like green Birch-tree Leaves, curiously sweet; the Wood shews in many places as if there were Plantations: for there are several clear places in the Woods, and Grass growing like fenc'd Fields in England; the Woods being so even by the sides of it, and on Point Saint Anne as you come sailing from the Northward, you will see good Bushes and tall Trees grow on the very point of it: This Point is rocky on the Shore-side, but no danger lies of it; you may be bold on it to get into Fort [sic, Port] Famen Bay.
Here is good Wooding, and Watering, and good catching of Fish with the Seyne or Net: I haled above five hundred large Fishes a-shore at one hale, much like to a Mullet, all scaly Fishes, here are many large Smelts of twenty Inches long, and many Anchovies, and some small made Scates: Here is great plenty of Fish, so much as we feed wholly on it, and salt up much of the Mullets and Anchovies. Here grow many Trees of good large Timber, forty Inches through: the Leaves are green and large, much like Bay-tree Leaves in England; the rind is grey on the out-side and pretty thick rined; this Rind or Bark of these Trees, if you chew it in your Mouth, is hotter than Pepper and more quicker; it is of a fpicy smell when it is dry; I cut of the Bark and made use of it in my Pease, and other Provisions instead of Spice, and found it very wholefom and good: wee steeped it in our Water, and drank it, and it gave the Water a pretty flavor. There grow of these Trees in the Woods, in many places in the Streight on both Shores, and on the Coasts on both sides of Patagonia, before you enter them. This may be the Winter-bark of the Shops, [?] which has an Aromatick pepper-like or spicy taste.
Port Famen lies in the Lat. of 53 d. 35 m. South; and in Longitude West, from the Lizard, 68 d. 9 m. and Meridian distance 1092 Leagues West, as my Account is in my Sailing: this Voyage, I give no credit to the plain Sailing: therefore this Meridian distance signifies very little as to Navigation.
I travelled in many places, but could not see any Fruit-trees, or Oak, or Ash, or Hasel, or any Timber like ours in England: Here are but two sorts of Timber in all these Woods, and one is the Pepper-rind Tree, which is indifferent wood, and the other is the Timber much like Beech: Here are the best and biggest Trees in all the Streights; here are Trees of two foot and an half through, and between thirty and forty feet long; there may be great Planks cut out of them. I could not see any grains of Metal or Mineral in any place, and I looked very carefully in Gullies, and places where Water had guttered. Here are some Herbs to be plucked up, as we boiled for Salleting, and green Grass with it,which relished pretty well. The Land in the woods is dry, and of'a gravelly and sandy Soil, and some places good brown Earth; it is bad travelling in the Woods for old Trees and Under-woods: the Woods trent all up on the sides of the Hills; the Land all about on the North-west and West of Port Famen, trents up to very high Hills, and the In-land is very high Hills; for we can see the tops of them all barren and ragged, peeping over those Mountains next to the Shore-side; much Snow lies continually on them: the Land on the South-shore is very high and peaked.
I saw many Ducks and brant-Geese on the Shore-sides, and in the fresh Waters, together with some Whales spouting in the main Channel.
I do verily believe that in these Mountains, there is some Metal either Gold or Copper, for the Man that went aboard pointed up to the Mountains, and spake to me when I shewed him my Ring. These People eat up the Provision which which was carried to them, and greased themselves all over with the Oil, and greased their Skin-Coats with it: I made signs to them to go and get some Gold and bring it to me: some of them went away to their Boats, the rest sat still on the Grass, talking one to another, and pointing to the Ship. Their Language is much in the Throat, and not very fluent, but uttered with good deliberation: I could not perceive but only the younger were obedient to the elder, and the Women were in obedience to the Men; for I took the Mens Coats and put about the Women, but the Men would not suffer them to keep the Coats long, and themselves to be naked, but took the Coats from the Women, and put them about themselves: I proffer’d them to exchange one of my Lads for one of theirs, and they laughed; but the Indian Lad would not go with me, but hung back: I gave to the Men Knives and Fish-hooks, and to the Lads Jews-trumps and Pipes, and to the Women Looking-glasses and Beads. I did this to gain their loves, and in hopes to have Trading with them for the future; they refus'd Brandy.
Cape Froward is the southermost Land of the great Continent of America, and it is very high Land on the back-side of it; the Face is steep up, of a Cliff of Rocks, and it is blackish grey, of a good height, and deep Water very near it. I sounded with my Boat close to it, and had forty Fathom: A Man may lay a Ship close to the face of the Cape, for there is Water enough: there is no Ground in the Channel at two hundred Fathoms, and but little Tide, or any ripling as I saw, but a fair Channel to sail throughout; of three Leagues broad from the North-shore to the South-shore. It is best for a Ship to keep nearer the North-shore than the South-shore; for the Winds are more generally of the Western Quarter.
Cape Froward, in Magellan Streights, lies in the Latitude of 53 d. 52 m. South. And in Longitude West, from the Lizard, in England 68 d. 40 m. West. And in Meridian distance in Leagues 1099, and two Miles West.
The Compass hath sixteen degrees of Variation Easterly at Cape Froward. As to the Firlining Points I cannot say any thing; I wanted a Needle.
November 4. 1670. I was in Wood's Bay, called so by my Mate's Name. November 5. I was a-breft of Cape-Holland; near which lies Cape Coventry and Andrew's Bay, also Cordes and Fostcues Bay,§ Cape and Port Gallant: but for a more exact Situation of the several Promontories, Bays, Ports, Rivulets, Soundings, &c. I refer the Reader to the large Draught of the Magellan Streights, drawn by my own Hand of the place.
§ Presumably, Fortescue Bay, so-named by Narbrough after John Fortescue, held prisoner by the Spanish. Of all the place names in the above paragraph, this is the only one that does not appear on Narbrough's map.
Narbrough's “Magellan Streights” engraved by John Sturt.
A-brest of the Bay, two leagues off is the Island which I called Charles Island and Monmouth-Island;§ more to the West-ward is James Island, and Ruperts-Island, and the Lord Arlingtons-Island, and the Earl of Sandwich's-Island, and Secretary Wren's Island: this Reach I called English Reach; a League more to the West-ward of Fostcues Bay is Cape Gallant.
§ Why two names for one island? Perhaps he meant the former for the land south of the San Sebastián Channel and the latter for that to the north.
The Streight shews now as if there were no farther passage to the Westward; for the South Land rounds up so much to the North-Westward, that it shuts against the North-Land to a Man's sight. At this distance I saw two large openings into the South Land, one opposite to Charles-Island, the other more to the Westward, up of the round South Bite; there I saw many Whales spouting, that place I called Whale-Bay: I saw several Brant Geese and Ducks here: I left in the Indians Houses Beads and Knives, in hopes of further Commerce: I saw on the South-side, a Fire made in the Grass by the Natives.
From the pitch of Cape-Froward, to the pitch of Cape-Holland, the Streight lies in the Channel West and by North, nearest, and is distant full five Leagues; and from the pitch of Cape-Holland, to the pitch of Cape-Gallant, the Streight lies in the Channel, West and by North, a little Northerly, and is distant eight Leagues: From the pitch of Cape-Gallant, to a low Point three Leagues to the Westward, the Streight lies in the Channel Northwest and by West, a little Northerly: This Reach is not more than two miles broad; from the North-shore to the Islands, which I called the Royal Isles: when I was a-breft of the Westermost Island, which I called Rupert's Island, being on the middle of the Channel with the Ship shot off one of my Sakers with a shot, and the shot lodged close to the Islands side. This low Point, a-brest of Ruperts’s Island, on the North shore, I called Point-Passage. This Evening at six of the Clock. I was shot past Point-Passage, half a mile to the Westward of it; having a fine Easterly gale.
Monday November 7. Cloudy gusts, foggy Weather, the Wind. at West. and somerimes at North-West: I rode fast all day close aboard the shore. This Afternoon I went in my Boat over to the South-side, opposite to Elizabeth's-Bay, at the Point called Whale-point, for the many Whales spouting thereby. I travelled up the Hills two miles; but could not see any Gold or Metal; the Land very irregular and Rocky, with mossy kind of Grass growing on it, and yery boggy and rotten; for I thrust down a Lance of sixteen feet long, into the Ground with one.hand very easily: Here grow many Juniper Trees, some of a foot throughout, the Wood not very sweet: Here I saw many brant-Geese and Ducks, much Snow on the inland Mountains so as I could not travel any farther: I returned down to the Boat again; I saw where the Natives had been by the evening of the Grass, but I could not have a sight of any. Here are many good Muscles on the Rocks of five inches long, and good Fish in them, and many seed Pearls in every Muscle: Here are also large Limpets and Sea-eggs among the Rocks.
All the Ripling is not worth the taking notice of, for it is but an hours time on both Tides Ebb and Floud, when the Tide runs strong; neither are the Tides anything prejudicial to the Navigation of the Streight, but rather advantagious to help to turn from Road to Road either way: For I have had a benefit of them in plying from place to place. The Weather indifferent this Afternoon; I went a-shore after I had done Sounding but saw no People nor any Metal; the Woods very thick, and several Trees of the hot Bark, the other Trees much like Beech-timber: some Ducks and brant-Geese seen on the Shore-side.
The Streight in this Reach between Elizabeth's Bay and St. Jerom’s River is about two Leagues, broad and high Land on the South-side; which hath several brave Coves on it like the Wet-dock at Deptford, and safe to lay Ships in them from either much Wind or any Sea. This Bay I called Muscle-Bay, for in it there are many and great plenty of good Muscles. The Shore-sides are rocky, steep too in most places; no Ground in the main Channel at an hundred Fathom; also in the Bays on the South-side it is deep Water, and small Islands lie in the Bays, and close along the Southshore lie small Islands. Here are many Whales; and I saw many Penguins, and some Seals: The Shores are woody on both sides, but ragged Timber and boggy Ground; the tops of the Hills bare Rocks and irregular: several streams of Snow water run down in the Cliffs of the Hills two Leagues to the Westward of Elizabeth’s Bay. On the North-shore the Land is low and woody near the Water-side, and up of a Valley in this Low-land: In this Valley there runs a fresh Water-River; I went into it with my Boat: It is but shallow at low Water; hardly Water enough for my Boat: Here I saw several Arbors of the Indians making, but no People. This River is a very convenient place to lay Shallops, or such like small Vessels in it; they may go into it at high Water, for the Tide riseth here eight or nine feet: this River I called by the name of Batchelor's River. Before the mouth of this River in the Streights, there is good anchoring, in nine, or ten, or twelve Fathom Water, sandy Ground; a fair birth off the Shore: the Tide runs but ordinary, and the Floud tide comes from the Westward, and the Tide that comes out of St. Jerom's Channel, makes a ripling with the Tide that comes along the stream of the Streight: I called this Road that is before Batchelor's-River, YorkRoad: This is a good place to ride in with Westerly Winds for here cannot go any great Sea; neither shall a Man be embayed; that if a Cable give way, he may have the Streight open to carry it away; for the Westerly Winds are the greatest Winds that blow here by the Trees, for they all stoop to these Winds, and lean to the Easterward, and the West-side of all the Trees that stand open, are made flat with the Winds: the tops of the Mountains look to the Eastward; the Easterly Winds seldom blow strong here as to what I have observed. By the Shore-side which lies open to the East, the Grass grows down to the Water side, and they are the greener Shores, and the Trees are streight and tall on the East-side of the Hills, but on the West-shores, the Grass and Trees are much weather-beaten, worn away, and crippled, and the Shore-sides much tewcd with the surge of the Waters.
At Cape Quad, the Lands shut one widh the othher, as if there were no farther passage: but as you make nearer to it, you will see the opening more and more, as the Streight rounds there more to the Northward again. Cape Quad is on the North-shore; and it is a steep up Cape, of a rocky, greyish Face, of a good height before one comes at it: it shews like a great building of a Castle; for it points off with a Race from the other Mountains, so much into the Channel of the Streight, that it makes shutting in against the South-land, and maketh an Elbow in the Streight: the Streight is not past four miles broad here, from shore to shore; and the Land is steep too on both sides, and rocky; the Mountains high on both Shores, and craggy barren Rocks: some Trees and Bushes growing here, and much Snow on the Mountains on both sides. Opposite to Cape Quad on the South-side, there is a fine large Bay, which is called Rider's Bay: I did not go into it; if there be Anchoring in it, it is a fair Road for any Winds: the Water is very deep here in the Channel; no Ground at one hundred Fathom: this part of the Streights, from Point Passage to Cape Quad, is the most crooked part of all the Streight; therefore I called this Crooked-Reach. Here are two small Islands in the North-shore, to the Eastward of Cape Quad.
November 14. This Morning I was a-brest of Cape-Munday, so I called it, it being a Cape on the South-side, and is distant from Cape de Quad about thirteen Leagues: the Streight here is about four miles broad, and the North-shore makes it to the Land with great sounds and broken Islands; the Land on both Shores is high rocky hills, and barren, very little Wood or Grass growing on them: Here at Cape Munday, the Streight grows broader and broader to the Westward, but keeps all one Course, North-West and by West to Capt Upright; which is a steep upright Cliff on the South-side, and it is distant from Cape Munday four Leagues. Here the Streight inclines to the Westward near half a Point: the Streight lies from Cape Munday West-north-west, half a Point Northerly right out into the South-Sea, if you be in the middle of the Channel, or nigh the North-shore; I find little or no Tide to run here, or Current: no Ground in the Channel at two hundred Fathom, a Musket shot off the Shore on either side. Here run into the South-shore many Sounds and Coves; I have sailed fair along by the South-shore all this day; for the Northshore makes in broken Islands and Sounds: Here lie all along the South-shore several small Islands, but no danger, for they are all steep too: the Streight is a very fair Channel to sail throughout. This day at Noon, I was a-breast of an Island, which lies on the North-side of the Streight, I called it Westminster-Island; there lie a great many Islands between that and the North-shore, and to the Eastward and Westward, as also some broken Ground, and Rocks lie about it: these Islands I called ihe Lawyers, and this Island which I called Westminster-Island, is an high rocky Island shewing like Westminster Hall; the Streight is five Leagues broad, between Westminster Island and the South shore; but between that and the Norrh-shore, there are many rocky Islands and broken Ground.
The Streight lies from Cape Munday to Cape Desseada West-north-west, and East-south-east, half a point Northerly, and half a point Southerly nearest, and they are distant from one another near fifteen Leagues: from Cape Quad to Cape Desseada, it is about twenty eight Leagues; and the Streight lies near North-West, and by West from Cape Quad into the South-Sea, and near in one Reach, which I called Long-Reach and some of my Company called it Long-Lane. This part may properly be called the Streights; for it is high Land all the way on both Shores, and barren Rocks, with Snow on them; and indeed from Cape Quad into the South-Sea, I called this Land South-Desolation, it being so desolate Land to behold.
Cape Desseada lies in the Latitude of 53 d. 10 m. South.
In Longitude West from the Lizard of England 72 d. 56 m.
And in Meridian distance 1149.
The Compass hath 14 d. 10 m. Variation Easterly here.
Cape Pillar lies in the Latitude of 51 d. 5 m.
In Longitude West from the Lizard of England 72 d. 49 m.
And in Meridian distance 1148 Leagues West.
I make the whole length of the Streights of Magellan, from Cape Virgin-Mary to Cape Desseada, with every Reach and turning, to be one hundred and fixteen Leagues: and so much I sailed from the one Sea to the other, according to my estimation.
The best Land-fall in my Opinion, is to make the face of Cape Desseada for to come out of the South-Sea to go into the Streight of Magellan; they lie in East and West at the first, till you come a-breft of Cape-pillar; then the Course is Southeast and by East nearest. Be careful to keep the South-shore in fair view; for the North-shore is broken Islands and Sounds, that a Man may mistake the right Channel or Streight, and steer up into one of them, as he comes out from the South Sea, if he lose sight of the South-shore. Here lie four small Islands at the North part of the mouth of the Streight, in the South-Sea; they lie pretty near together: the Eastermost stands singly by it self, and is round copling up of a fair height like an Hay-cock, or Sugar-loaf: the other three are flattish; they lie from Cape-pillar North-north-west, by the true Compass 6 Leagues off; they are distant from Cape-Victory, near four Leagues South-west. I called them the Islands of Direcfion; they are good wishing to fall with the Mouth of the Streight.
November 26. The Land makes in Islands, lying near the main Land, is high and large Hills In-land, which stretch North and South, some Snow lying on the tops of the highest Hill. At eight of the Clock I made the Island of Nuestra Sennora del Socoro; in the Spanish Tongue it is called The Island of our Lady of Sucore; I steered with it North-east and by East; it made rounding up at the Eastermost end, and lower in the middle than at either end: it maketh with a ridge running from one end to the other, and Trees growing on it: the Shore-side is rocky on the South side of the Island, and some broken Rocks lie near the Shore-side, and on the South-East end of the Island there stand two peaked copling Rocks close to the Shore; they are white on the top with Fowls dung. The Island is of a fine heighth, and all woody on the North-side of it; the Trees grow down to the Water-side, and fresh Water runs down in five or six Gullies: the Woods are all green, and very thick spicy Trees.
Meridian distance at Noon from Cape-pillar, East 20 d. 0 m. 4 ten. Longitude at Noon from Cape-pillar, East 1 d. 19 m. Longitude at Noon, from the Lizard, West 71 d. 42 m. Meridian distance at Noon, from the Lizard, West 1128 leag. 0 min. 4 ten. Longitude from the Meridian of the Lizard, West 71 deg. 42 min. The Compass hath eleven degrees, Variation Easterly here.
I went a-shore with my Boats for fresh Water, which I had them laden with presently; for here is fresh Water enough, and very good; I searched the Shore what I could, I saw an old Hutt or Arbour of the Indians making, and several sticks that were cut, but all old done. I could not see any sign of People on the Island now; I believe the People come rambling to this Island from the Main in the season of the Year to get young Fowls: for I do not see any thing else in the Island for the fustenance of Mans Life; I could not see any kind of Mineral or Metal: the Soil is a sandy black Earth, and some Banks of Rocks: the Island is irregular, and grown all over with impenetrable thick Woods, so as I could not see the inward part of it: the Woods are ordinary. Timber, none that I saw was fit to make Planks of; the nature of the Wood is much like Beech and Birch, and a sort of heavy Wood good for little but the fire, it is white: no Fruit or Herbs; very little Grass, the Woods are so thick; much kind of long sedgy Grass; no wild Beast to be seen; severa1 small Birds in the Woods like Sparrows: there are several Fowls like Kites in the Woods, several black and white brant-Geese and pied Shags, and other such Sea-Fowls, as Pinks and Sea-mews: what else the Island affords I cannot tell. I made a Fire on the Shore, in hopes to have some answer of it on the Main, but had not. At Noon I went aboard, and scnt my Boats a-shore again for more Wood and Water, whilst the Weather permitted landing.
November 30. This Forenoon I was over on the main side, the Ship lay off, and in. I went ashore with my Boat on an Island which lieth ad jacent to the Main: There runs a Channel between that and the Main, and many Rocks lie in it, and foul Ground, so as I durft not venture the Ship in it. This Island shewed as if it had been the Main, till I went to it with the Boat; being about four Leagues long from the North point to the South-point, and in some places a League broad. The Island is of a mean height, and in some places two Leagues broad, and grown all over with Woods very thick: the Timber is such like as is on the Isle of Socoro: I could not see any kind of Mineral or Metal in it; the Shore-side sandy in many places, and rocky in others; the Earth on this Island is of a sandy black soil, but very wet with the continual Rains that are here. Not finding this noted in my Draughts, I called it after my own Name Narbrough's-Island; I took possession of it for his Majesty and his Heirs: I could not see any People, or any sign of them here. South-east from Narbrough's-Island on the Main distant about three Leagues, there runs into the Land a River or Sound, and some broken ground lies before it. The Shore-side is rocky, and the Hills are high in the Land on both sides of it; this opening lies in East and West. I take it for that place which in the Draughts is called Saint Domingo. This place lies in the Latitude of forty four Degrees, fifty Minutes South; and more to the Southward thereof lie many round coplin high Islands grown over with Woods: all along the Coasts as far as I could fee, there lie Islands adjacent to the Main, and they are of a great height.
This Day all the Bread in the Ship is expended: all the Company of the Ship, my self as well as any other, eat Pease in lieu of Bread; my Company are all indifferent well in health, I thank God for it, being seventy two in Company: no Fish to be taken with Hooks: many Porpusses seen, and some Whales; several Sea-Fowls seen swimming to day: much Wind to Night at North West; I ride sail, but doubtful of my Cable.
No-Man's Island lies in the Latitude of forty three Degrees, forty seven Minutes South, and in Longitude West from the Lizard in England seventy one Degrees, thirty two Minutes. And in Meridian distance from the Lizard of England one thousand one hundred and twenty six Leagues and one Mile; and in Meridian distance from Cape-pillar East, twenty two Leagues, two Miles, and two tenths; and in Longitude East from Cape-pillar, one degree, twenty nine minutes 1/10. The variation of the Compass is ten Degrees Easterly here.
This Island is that which the Draughts make to lie at the South-end of the Island of Castro, at the Mouth of the going in of that Channel, which is between Castro and the Main; the Draughts are false in laying down of this Coast; for they do not make any mention of the several Islands that lie on it, but lay it down all along to be a streight Coast: the Latitude of most places are laid down very near as what I have found. Here are many Islands adjacent on the Coast more Southerly, in the Latitude of forty five and an half, but none are laid down.
December 15. Don Carlos was put a-shore, and carried with him a Sword, and a Case of Pistols, and his best Apparel, and a Bag with his Beads and Knives; together with Scissars, Looking glatses, Combs, Rings, Pipes, Jews-harps, Bells and Tobacco; all which things he had of me to give to the Natives. At seven of the Clock Signior Carlos was set a-shore, on the South side of the Harbour of Baldavia without the Mouth of it a Mile, in a small sandy Bay, about two Miles within Point Gallere, between the Point and the Mouth of the Harbour. When he was a-fhore, he took his leave of my Lieutenant, and bad him go aboard and look out for his Fire in the Night. He went from the Boat along the Sea-side in the path toward the Harbour's Mouth: the Men in the Boat saw him go along for the distance of a quarter of a Mile, till he turned behind a point of Rocks out of sight. The Shore-side is low and sandy, and some scattered Rocks lie in it: the Land riseth trenting to large Hills: the Land is all woody and very thick, that there is no travelling but by the Water-side. My Lieutenant went a-shore to the edge of the woods, and gathered several green Apples off the Trees: for there grow Apple-trees on the Shore-side, much like our European Winter-Fruit; the Apples are bigger than Walnuts with their shells on; whether these Trees were planted by the Spaniards, or grow naturally in the Country, I cannot tell.
I do not find any Current or Tide to set on this Coast, that is any way prejudicial to Navigation; neither do I find the Winds to blow Trade: but they are veerable, and are given to blow hard on the Western Quarter; and rain much.
The Mouth of the Harbour of Baldavia on the Coast of Chile, in the South-Sea, lieth in the Latitude of 39 d. 56 m. South. And in Longitude, West from the Lizard of England 70 d. 19 m. And in Longitude East, from Cape-pillar 2 d. 41 m. And in Meridian, distance from Cape-pillar, East 41 leag. 2 mil. 1/10.
The Account I make by my sailing from the Meridian of the Lizard, according to my daily Account of my Ships way: I do not make any Account of plain Sailing to be fit for Seamen to observe; but the best Navigation is by Mercator, sailing according to the Circle of the Globe, which I ever sailed by, and keep my Account of Easting and Westing byLongitude which is the best and most certain Sailing, to give the true defcription of the Globe. I have noted down the Meridian distance I made daily, whereby such Navigators and Seamen as know better, may have that to give them the knowledge of the distances of Places, according to their Understanding. Most of our Navigators in this Age sail by the Plain Chart, and keep their Accounts of the Ships way accordingly, although they sail near the Poles; which is the greatest Errour that can be committed; for they cannot tell how to find the way home again, by reason of their mislake; as I have some in the Ship with me now that are in the same Errour, for want of Understanding the true difference of the Meridians, according to their Miles of Longitude in the several Latitudes. I could wish all Seamen would give over sailing by the false plain Card, and sail by Mercator's Chart, which is according to the truth of Navigation; But it is an hard matter to convince any of the old Navigators, from their Method of sailing by the Plain Chart; shew most of them the Globe, yet they will walk in their wonted Road.
At eight of the Clock in the Forenoon my Boat put from me, and rowed to the Shore within Point Gallery, to the place where Don Carlos was landed: I laid off and on with the Ship before the Port; the Boat rowed all along the Shore by the place where Don Carlos was landed, and along the Shore into the Harbour; at the Points on the South side of the Harbour stands a small Fort of seven Guns called S. James's Fort: My Boat came suddenly on it, and before they perceived it to be a Fort, they were within shot of it. The Spa niards stood on the Shore; and wafted with a white Flag, and called to them; My Lieutenant rowed to them, and asked of them what Country they were? they answered, of Spain: They asked my Lieutenant of what Country he was? He answered, of England; they asked him to come ashore, which he did, in hopes to have seen Don Carlos there, for that path that Don Carlos went in when he was landed, led directly to this Fort by the Sea-side, and was not a Mile from the Fort to the place where he was landecl, so as he must go to this Fort and be upon it before he was aware of it, unless he knew it before. The path went all along between the Woods and the Sea: In the woods there is no travelling, they are so thick, and grow on the side of an Hill; the Fort stands juft by the Wood-sidc on a race of the Bank, of five yards ascent from the Sea, with a bank of Earth cast up before the Ordnance, and slight Pallisadoes plac'd in an Halfmoon, four yards distant from the Guns to the Southward, which Pallisadoes are to keep the Natives from running violently on the Ordnance: so these Spaniards guard themselves with long Lances against the Natives in the Fort. The Spaniards have Match-lock Musquetoons, but they are very ordinary ones, and they are as silly in using them.
At my Lieutenants landing, about twenty Spaniards and Indians came to the Water-side in Arms, and received him and his Company a-shore, and carried him some twenty yards from the Waterside up the race of the Bank, under a great Tree, where the Captain of the Fort, and two other Spa nish Gentlemen, received him under the shade with great Courtesie, after the Spaniards Ceremony; they sat them on Chairs and Benches placed about a Table, under the shade; for the Sun shone very warm, it being a very fair Day. The Spanish Captain called for Wine, which was brought to him in a great Silver Bowl; He drank to my Lieutenant, and bid him welcome a-shore, and caused five of his Ordnance to be fired, being glad to see Englijh Men in this place, and told him that this was Baldavia, speaking very kindly, and how welcome they were to him: After every one had drank, and my Lieutenant had thanked him for his Entertainment, he desired my Gentlemen to sit down, and he discoursed with them, and asked from whence they came, and what way they came into this Sea, and what their Captains Name was, and if there were Wars in England. My Lieutenant answered him to his demands: My Lieutenant asked him, if they were in peace with the Indians?r He answered, that they were at Wars with them round about, wafting his Hand round the Harbour, and that they were valiant People and very barbarous, and fought on Horseback, and did them much spoil; and that two days before, the Indians came out of the Woods and killed a Captain, as he stood at his Duty by the side of the Fort, and cut off his Head and carried it away, sticking on their Lance. He shewed my Lieutenant the place where the Indians came out of the Woods, and the place where the Man was killed. They seem to be very fearful of the Indians, for they will not stir any way, but they will have their Piece or their Lance with them. It is a manifest sign they are much affraid of the Indians: also they have no more ground than the Fort; neither do they clear any of the Woods on this side of the Harbour, nor walk at a Musquetshot distance from the Pallisadoes, along the Woods-side. The Spaniards say that the Indians have much Gold, and that their Armour for their Brest is fine beaten Gold, &c.
In the Afternoon a Dinner was brought out of the Fort to the Tent, where they were, and placed on the Table: The first Course was Soppas, then Olleos, then Pullets, then fresh Fish, all dressed with hot Sawee, and very good Diet it was; the last Course was Sweet-meats: every Course was served in Silver Dishes, and all the Plates were Silver, and the Pots and Stew-pots, and all the Utensils belonging to the dressing of the Provisions were Silver; the Bason wherein they brought Water to wash their Hands was in like manner made of Silver, very large, and the Hilts of the Soldiers Swords were Silver, but the Hilts of the Officers Swords were Gold of good value: Moreover, the Plate at the But-end of the Stock of their Musquetoons was of the same Metal, and the Pipe that the Rod runs in was Silver; as also the tip of the Gun-stick, and their TobaccoBoxes, and Snuff-Boxes, and the Staves which they walk with were headed and ferrelled with Silver, and ferrelled on the joints with Silver. Indeed they are Masters of much Silver and Gold, and it is but little esteemed among them. Their boasting was Plata no vallanada muchoro in terra. §
§ Silver is not of much value in this land.
Four Spanish Gentlemen desired to go aboard with my Lieutenant, and see the Ship, and Pilot her into the Harbour, if I would come in, which they did not question but I would, as I understood afterward by a Spaniard that came aboard to me, who revealed to me their whole Dcsign, how they intended to surprise the Ship, which I ever took care to prevent, giving them no opportunity: For it hath been a general practice with the Spaniards in America, to betray all forein Interest in these parts; as I had read of their treacherous dealings with Captain Hawkins at Saint Juan de Ulloa.
I had much Discourse with the Spanish Gentlemen this day concerning Baldavia, and the Country of Chile: They tell me they have much Gold here at Baldavia, and that the Natives do much hinder their getting of it; for they are at cruel Wars with them, and will not permit them to plant any thing near here about, nor at Baldavia, but they come and destroy it with Fire. And that the Natives are very cruel and barbarous; if they take any Spaniard they cut off his Head, and carry it away on their Lances end. These Spaniards tell me that they live here, as the Spaniards do at Mamora in Barbary; having their Enemies round about them. These Spaniards say, that the Indians are tall Men, and of a Gigantick stature and extreamly Valiant, and that they fight on Horse back, eight and ten thousand Men in Arms, and well difcipln'd. The Indians have much Gold; and their Weapons are long Lances, and Bows, and Arrows, and Swords, and some Musquets, which they have taken from the Spaniards, and know how to usc them in Service; taking also Ammunition, &c. The Indians are very populous in the Land about Baldavia, and at Orsono, and on the Island of Castro, and at Chile, and that they have much Gold on these parts about Orsono, and Chilue [Chiloé], and that they trade with the Spaniards, and give them Gold.
This Captain said, that they have six great Ships going yearly from Lima to the Philippine Islands, to the Port of Mannelos, and that they have a great Trade with the Chineses; and that these Ships sail from the Calleo, [Callao] that is the Port of Lima in the Month of January, and their passage is but little more than two Months, from Lima to the Port of Mannelos, and they sail it within the Tropicks, and have much Easterly Winds; and they return back by the Northwards, to gain the Westerly Winds, which brings them to California, and to the Port of Aquapulco, which lieth on the West-Coast of Nova Espana, and from thence they come to Panama, and then to the Port of Lima. They bring rich Lading, much Silks and other rich Commodities, and Spices and Callicoes. The Mannelos have a great Trade with the Japaneses and Chineses, which is very beneficial to them. The Captain demanded of me whither I was bound? I answered him, I was bound for China, and that I had rich Lading for that Country; and tha tI only touched in at this place, knowing here were Settlements of the King of Spains Subjects, hoping here to have wood and fresh Water, and refreshing for my Men, whereby I might the better proceed on my Voyage. He said, I should have what the Country would afford, and that the Captain of the Fort had sent for Provisions for me, and that I might have Water on the Shore-side, pointing his Hand to the place which was near by; the Captain said, it was Aqua del oro (which is water of Gold in English.) This saying caused me to laugh; then he said, it came running from the Hills where they find Gold, and that there was Gold in that Rivulet. I asked him how they get the Gold? He said, they wash the Earth which is in the Mountains, and find the Gold in the Bowl or Tray when the Earth is washed out. And they buy much Gold of the Indians, which they gather in the Gullies of the Hills, which is washed in there by the Rains, and snow dissolv'd,which descend from the high Mountains, which they say are very high and barren Rocks, thirty Leagues Inland from the Sea-shore. The Land between those barren Hills and the Sea-shore, is mighty good Land, and the Country very fruitful; abounding in many Plains, and much Cattle that the Indians have, as Horses and Cows, and Goats and Sheep, which they have taken from the Spaniards, since they came into this Country. The Spaniards call the high rocky mountains the Andes, and say that those Andes run all along the Land from Magellan Streights in a row to S. Martha, which is in Terra firma, not far from Cartagean
The most Gold in all the Land of America is in Chile, as what is known at this time. But I find the Spaniards. have but little knowledge of the Land all along to the Southward, fromBaldavia to the Streights Mouth, as far as I can understand my them, excepting at the Island of Castro: There they have a Settlement, and on the Main against Castro at a place called Orsono: At these two places they have good store of Gold, and there are many Indians: but farther Southerly than Castro, they know nothing of the Country, or of the Sea-Coast. Castro lieth in the Latitude of 43 d. 30 m. the South end of the Island, and the North end lies in the Latitude of 41 d. 40 m. It is a fine Island, and near the Main, there grows good Wheat on it. The Spaniards are but few in number there, but there are many Indians, and those too valiant and of a large stature; but not Giants as I understand: These Indians have Wars with the Spaniards, and will not fuffer them to search the Country for Wealth.
A Ship brought from Lima Provisions for the City of Baldavia and the Forts, and Cloaths, and Ammunition, and Wines, and Tobacco, and Sugar; and she lades away from Baldavia Gold and Bezoar Stone, and red Wool, &c. and Indian Slaves that the Spaniards take here in these parts; they carry them to Peru,and make perpetual Slaves of them there; and the Indians of Peru they bring hither, and make Soldiers of them against the Chile-Indians, of which Soldiers there are many hereabout, whom my Men saw when they were at the Fort. There were about thirty Indians and Musteses Soldiers there, and some fixteen white Men who were Officers. Moreover, the Spaniards make use of the Peru-lndians to Trade with the Chile-Indians for Gold, although they are at War. For they of Chile without doubt are desirous of Trade, whereby they may furnish themselves with Knives, and Scissers, and Combs, &c. which are wanting among them; as also with Arms that many times by stealth are sold to them although they be prohibited; Traders will be dealing; so as they can get benefit, they do not consider the future danger by its means, provided it miss them at thc present.
I asked them how far it was to Baldavia? they answered me, three Leagues, and that the Boats could go up to it, and that it was situated by the side of the River and the Plains, and that there were five great Ordnances in a Fort to command the City, and that there were one thousand In habitants in the City of all sorts of Men, Women and Children. I asked him, if there were any passage by Land from Baldavia to the other parts of Chile? they said there was, and they sent every Week, but they went with good Guards to go secure from the lndian. Then I asked them if they built Shipping here? they said no but at Velperrazeo they did build great Ships. I asked them who lived in the Island of Mocha? they said Indians, many Men and Women, and that they were Poco amigo's to them; in English, they were but small Friends to the Spaniards. There are many Sheep, Goats, Hogs and Hens, which the Indians will sell for Hatchets, Knives and Beads. As to the Island of St. Mary, the Spaniards are Masters of it, and have a Fort on it with five Guns, but few Spaniards live there: it is plentiful of Provisions, as Hogs, and Sheep, and Corn, and Potatoes: and they said there is some Gold, that the Indians have on the Island of Mocha, but they will not part from it.The Spaniards did not care for answering me to such things as I would gladly have heard of these parts; for I laid the Draught of all that Coast on the Table before them, and asked them who lived at this Port, and who lived at that: at some places they would say the Spaniards lived there, and at some the Indians, but they they did not care to answer my desires, but frame other Discourses to wave mine. I find that they are but little acquainted on the Coasts to the Southward of Baldavia; they say, they have Spaniards living on the Island of Castro, and that much Corn grows there, more especially European Wheat; and that on the Main there are Spaniards living at a place called Orsono, which is against Castro, and that there they have Gold, and there are many Indians. I asked him if Shipping could go in between Castro and the Main? they could not tell me, or would not; but they said some Ships went thither, which come from Lima with Furniture for the People.
The Anchoring at the Island of Mocha is on the North-north-east part of it, in a sandy Bay in eight Fathom Water near the Shore; a North-east Wind is the worst Wind for the Road: on the South-side of Mocha there lies a ledge of Rocks, and some broken Rocks on that part of the Island, scattered from the Shore.
The Anchoring at the Island of St. Mary is on the North-side in a fine sandy Bay, in eight or nine Fathom Water, a fine Birth from the Shore; the North-north-west Wind is the worst Wind for that Road. There is Wood and fresh Water on both the Islands, as the Spaniards report. The Tides are but mean on the Coast, and the Flood comes from the Southward, and rise about eight or nine feet Water.
The Island of Mocha lies in the Lat. of 38 d. 30 m. South. The Island of St. Mary lies in the Lat. of 37 d. 14 m. South.
They have Apples, and Plums, and Pears and Olives, Apricocks, Peaches, Quinces; Oranges, Lemmons, and many other Fruits: There are also Musk-Melons, and Water-Melons, &c. These Spaniards report it to be the finest Country in the whole World, and that the People live with the greatest Luxury of any on the Earth; they enjoy their Health with so much delight, and have so much Wealth and Felicity, that they compare the Land to Paradise, abounding above other Countries with all Delights for Mankind. I saw a good Testimony of the healthiness of the Country; for these four Men who are on Board, are as well-complexioned Men as ever I saw in my days; and the People a-shore, both Men and Women of the Spartiards are well-complexioned People, of a ruddy colour, and seem to be mighty healthy. Some of the Men are very corpulent, and look as if they came from a very plentiful Country, where there is great store of Provisions, and abundance of Gold and Silver.
December 17. 1670. There went a-shore in the Boat eighteen of my best Men I had in the Ship, and Men of good Obscrvation to inspect into matters of this Concern, which I had acquainted them with; as touching the manner of the Harbour, and the Fortifications the Spaniards have, and the disposition of the People; and that it was my whole desire to have Conference with the Natives of the Country that are at Wars with the Spaniards, if by any means possible it may be obtained; for it is my whole desire to lay the Foundation of a Trade there for the English Nation for the future; for I see plainly this Country is lost for want of the true knowledge of it.
My Men in the Boat observed the Harbour and the Fortifications, and took good notice of the People. The Spaniards bought several things of my Boats Crew and paid for what things they bought in good Pillar pieces of Eight; they would not part from any Gold, although my Men were desirous to have some rather than Silver for their Goods: neither would they part from any Bread in payment, pretending that they should have Bread tomorrow from Baldavia. The things which they bought of my Men at this time, were two Fowling pieces, which cost in England about twenty shillings a piece, and the Spaniards gave sixteen pieces of Eight apiece for them; and Cases of Knives of three shillings the piece in England, the Spaniards gave five pieces of Eight for them; and for single ten-penny Wires, they gave a piece of Eight a piece for them; and for ordinary Leather-gloves, of ten pence the pair, they gave a piece of Eight a pair; for Broad-Cloath Coats of the Seamens, which cost fixteen shillings in England, they gave nine pieces of Eight for a Coat: They were very desirous to buy Cloaks and piece of Bays-cloath. The Men were very gallant in Apparel in their Plush Coats, and under-Garments of Silk and Silver wrought together, and good Linnen, and good Flanders Laces, and broad about the Crown of of their Hats, in fashion of an Hat-band, and a great Silk-scarf with Gold Lace on the ends of it, that was cross over their Shoulders: a short Cravat of Linnen about their Necks, and a Cane in their Hand headed with Silver; their Shoes, and Stockings, and Breeches after the Spanish fashion. They were very kind to my Lieutenant and Men, and treated them very courteously. They were not permitted to go into the Fort, but were entertained in a Tent by the Fort. Four of the Spaniards Wives would needs go into the English Boat, and sit down on the Benches, to say that they had been in a Boat which came from Europe. They were very proper white Women born in the Kingdom of Peru of Spanish Parents: they never had been in Europe. The Spaniards have some Indian Women to their Wives: the Women were all well Apparelled in Silks after the Spanish fashion, and about their Necks great Gold Chains, and Pendants at their Ears of Saphir Stones, &c.
The Captain of St. Jago's Fort presented my Lieutenant with a Silver Tobacco-box, and a Silver-headcd Cane, and a Plume of Ostriches Feathers, which he wore on his Hat at the same time: the Feather of the Plume is but small, nothing so good as the Barbary Fcathcr: this Plume was of red, and white, and blewFeathers died in the Country. I saw another Plume which a Spanish Gentleman gave to Mr. Wood, which was black and large, and a very fair one, made of the Ostriches Feather of the Country. There are many ostriches in the plain Lands, and Guianacoes, which are the Beasts that bear the red Wooll whereof Hats are made in England. There is much of of this Wooll in the Kingdom of Peru and Chile.
My People could not by any means come to Converse with the Natives who are at wars with the Spaniards, and have the Gold, without violating the Spaniard's Power: for on the Shore within the Harbour, the Indians made a Fire by the Woods side, and hung out a white flag on a long Pole, and kept wafting of it a long time. My Lieutenant would have gone in his Boat to them; but the Spaniards would not permit him, and said that they were their own People who lived there.
My Seamen which came aboard in my Boat, came to me, and told me, that the Lieutenant had been at Fort St. Jago, and had deliver'd my Message there to the Captain, but he had no Order for my fetching of Water, and that he wishcd my Lieutenant to go to Fort St. Peter; which he did, and a Frier and two Spaniards went over with him in the Boat, the Flag of Truce flying in the Boat, and the Trumpeter sounding, according to my Order, all the time till they landed at the Fort. At their Landing, the Lieutenant was received very courteoufly by several Spanish Gentlemen; and desired to walk up to the Govcrnour; which my Lieutenant did to a Tent where the Governour was; the Govcrnour received the Lieutenant very kindly, and desired him to sit down. My Lieutenant presented my respects to the Governour, and delivered to him the Cheese and Butter, togcther with the Spice, Glasses and Tobacco-pipes, which I sent to him, and acquainted him, that I scnt him to desire to know if he would be pleased to permit my Boat to Water to day, for my Boats lay ready, and had the Cask in them, and I waited his Answer. The Governour caused my Lieutenant and Mr. Fortescue to sit down, and drank to them in a Silver Bowl with Chile Wine. He gave no Answer to the Lieutenant at present, but sent an Officer and Soldiers and seized on my Boat; My Lieutenant desired to know what the meaning was that possession was taken of the Boat? The Governour answered, he had Order from Don Pedro de Montaies, Captain General of Chile, to keep them till the Ship was brought into the Harbour under the command of the Castle, and he was sorry he had no more Officers of the Ships in possession.
A LETTER from Lieutenant Armiger to Captain Narbrough.
My self and Mr. Fortescue are kept here as Prisoners, but for what cause I cannot tell; but they still pretend much Friendship, and say, that if you will bring the Ship into the Harbour, you shall have all the Accommodation that may be,
Sir, I need not advise you further,
December 18. 1670.
I examined my Seamen which came in my Boat from the Lieutenant, and they related to me the whole matter, and they believed that the Spaniards had a design to betray the Ship, but they could not agree among themselves: I talked with the two Indians that came aboard, they could speak the Spanish Tongue indifferently well; they told me that I was a Friend to the Indians of the Monntains, and that I was not a Spaniard: they would would needs know of me where my Country is, and if I would come again; I made them answcr, that my Country is a little way off, on the other side of the Sea, and that I would come again, and bring Knives, Hatchets, Beads, Glasses, &c. and live in the Counntry with them, and that they should see my Country; and that my King would give them many things, and they should live with us; and that my King is the greatest King in the World, and Commands all other Kings, and that our Names are English; the Indians laughed and seemed to be very glad: I bad them acquaint the lndians of the Mountains, or In-lands, that I came to speak with them, and that I was their Friend, and would give them many Hatchets, and Knives and Swords, &c. if they would come to me, and that I came purposely to speak with them; and that my Master the Great King of England, hath sent them many things, and would willingly see them.
After these People had heard all that I said to them, they sat for a time mute, and considering of the Kindnesses they received from me and my Company, and that they must go a-shore again under the Command of the cruel Spaniards, they weeped extreamly, and uttered these words, Numbra Spanalos muccho Deablo, &c. In English it is, The Spanish men are much Devils, &c. I verily believe that these poor innocent Creatures speak truth, for they are great Devils in abusing these poor Souls so unmercifully as they do. In sight of my Men the Spaniards with a great Staff would strike an Indian as he talked with him, and beat him al1 along, for no cause at all; but this they do to shew their Greatness and Imperiousness. The best Name the Spaniards can afford to call an Indian by, is Dog, and Devil, and such like Names.
These Indians say, that there is much Gold in the Land, and that the Spaniards have much Oro; I gave to each of these Indians a Knifc,and a small Looking-glass, and some Beads: they were very thankful, and I put them in mind again to speak to the Indians of the In-land, that I would give them Knives and Glasses if they would come to me. I was in great hopes all this time, that I should have the opportunity to speak with my Golden Friends, by the means of these People; for they seemed to be glad of the Message, or of the things which I gave them to do it.
These People are of a middle stature, strongly set and well fleshed; they are tawny coloured, and have long black flaggy Hair; their Features tolerable, of a somewhat melancholy Countenance; they are very active in Body, and hardy in enduring of Weather or Diet: They wear small Caps on their Heads like to Mounteers, and their Garment is a long Mantle; but most of their Garments are a square piece of Wollen Cloth like a Carpet, of their own weaving of the Wool of Guianacocs: they cut an hole in the middle of this Carpet through which they put their Head, and it hangs upon their Shoulders, and covers their whole Bodies like a Cloak, when it is buttoned down before. Some have these Cloaks so long as it reacheth down to their middle-Leg, and some to the Knee; some wear half-Stockings on their Legs, but no Shoes nor Shirts: some have Breeches after the Spanish Fashion, but close to their Thighs and Knees.
A NOTE which I sent to Lieutenant Armiger, enclofed in a Letter.
Lieutenant, take vhat notice you can of the Fortification of the Fort, and what strength they have of People in it, and whether they are able to withstand a Ship; and what quantity of provisions they have in it; and whether Don Carlos be there; send me an Account thereof by John Wilkins; I will use all endeavours to have you off, when I understand the slrength of the place. I remain yaur loving Friend, John Narbrough.
Burn all the Letters you receive from me, and in case of Examination.
December 18. 1670. This Evening I took the Suns Amplitude with my Compass, and I had a good Observation. I find the variation of the Compass to be eight Degrees ten Minutes Easterly.
I do much reason with my self as to the Variation, that it differs so much in the same Latitude, between the East and West-side of the Land of America; for on the East-side as I sailed in the Latitude of forty Degrees, I found the Compass to have twenty Degrees variation Easterly, by several good Observations, which I took with the same Instrument as I now do use, which is a large Azimuth Compass; and here I find but eight Degrees and ten Minutes variation; and it is but eight Degrees of Longitude more Westerly in the same Parallel, differing between these Observations, and the difference of Variation.
I find the Land to be but one hundred and twenty five Leagues broad, from the East-side to the West-side, in the Latitude of forty Degrees South of the Equinoctial; certainly the attractive quality of the Magnet, must be very powerful in the Eastern part of the Land, more than in the Western, which causeth the difference: yet I admire, being on both sides of the Land, the Compass should always have the same variation Easterly. I was of the Opinion that the variation would have been Westerly on the Westside, it being Easterly on the East-side: but I find the contrary by experience; therefore I believe that the attractive quality is not much in this part of America, but some other part more to the Eastward than I was; for if the attractive quality had been in this Land, and I sailing on both sides of it, the variation must have been Easterly on the one side, and Westerly on the other. This Discourse I leave to a better Understanding; for I am not as yet satisfied what occasioneth the variation and the great difference of it, although I have been on several Voyages, and have made great benefit of the Understanding of the variation of the Compass, in directing of the true Cousie, &c.
In the Port of Baldavia there are three fair Rivers, which come out of the Country, and empty themselves into the Port with a brisk stream of fresh Water, which causeth the stream always to set out of the Harbour, and the Waters to be fresh just within the Harbours mouth: one River runs up into the South-east part of the Harbour into the Country; another River runs into the Country to the Eastward, on the back-side of St. Peter's Fort: the third River runs into the Country, about the North-point of the Harboursmouth, between the point and the North-end of St. Peter's Island: it runs up in the North-eastward, and nine or ten Mills stand upon the River from the Harbours-mouth. The City of Baldavia is situated on the Bank of the River, as the Spaniards tell me.
I judge this City of Baldavia is but a small place, and kept only as a Garrison, and a place for Trade with the Indians for Gold, Bezoarstiones, Guianacoes-Wooll, &c. The Spaniards that were aboard, and the Indians said, that there were were but five great Guns in it, and three hundred Men. I know that they speak of the most of everything in the matters as concerning their strength and number of Men.
I believe that these Rivers may run into the Country a long way, and the Spaniards to have but little knowledge in the inward parts of this Country: for the Indians will not suffer the Spaniards to search into the In-lands. I believe also that these Rivers are not Navigable for Shipping; for the Bark which was there would certainly have gone up the River to the City of Baldavia, and delivered her Goods there, and not troubled themselves to carry the goods up in Boats, and small flat-bottomed Barges, which they have there for the purpose: The Barges are built much like our West-Country Barges, and smaller by much. These Boats or Barges will carry about ten or twelve Tuns: they steer with a Rudder, and have one Mast and Sail, as our Barges have; the Sail is made of Cotton-cloth, and the Ropes are made of the rind of Mangrove Trees; and instead of Anchors, they have wooden Crab-claw or Kellocks. Anchors of Iron and Grapnels are scarce in these Countries: Ropes and Cables of Hemp are also scarce there, and good Fir-masts much wanted in all these Countries for their Ships. The Masts for their Ships are made of white Cedar, and such like Wood; they are very heavy and short grained, and will break fhort.There are not any Fir-trees growing in all the Land: Good Workmen for the building of Ships are also much wanted here, and Seamen.
The smaller Boats which they have here are Canoas, being cut out of the Body of a large Tree, and shaped somewhat like a Shallop at the ends: some are thirty feet long, and built one strake of Board upon them, to raise them higher on their sides; they will carry near twenty Men a piece: some are rowed with Oars, and some are less, and rowed with Paddles: those which are walt, have a great Beam lashed sail along each side without Board, which keeps them from overfetting. These Boats are very ill built, for I saw not any-one of them fit to row in any Sea-gate, or for any Service, or to carry any Perfon of Quallity in. The Indians are the Spaniards Slaves to row them to and fro, and to do all manner of labour; for the Spaniards will not lay their Hands to any thing in that nature, accounting it beneath them to foul their Fingers with Work; for they scorn to be Servants one to another, let the one be never so Potent, and the other not worth the Rags which he weareth: yet he scorns to be a Servant to him, and live in America.
The Land about the Harbour of Baldavia is of a good height, and in Land it riseth in large Hills: it is low by the Water-side, and the Shore is sandy in some Bays, and broken shatty bits of glittering Rocks like Gold, lie shatter'd along by the Shore-side. All the whole Country is over-grown with green Woods, as what I coulld see of it, and by the Rivers sides: there is no travelling in the Woods, they are so thick with Under-brush, old rotten Trees, and Leaves, and such Trash.
The Harbour is near a Mile and an half broad, and the Guns cannot command from one side to the other: St. Peter's Fort is near two Miles from the Harbours mouth; any Ship may come in and beat them from their Guns, in St. Jago Fort, and in St. Andrew's Sconce, which are on the SouthWest side of the Harbour. After you are in, Saint Peter's Fort can do very little or no hurt at all to your Ship, excepting it be accidental dropping shot. The Spaniards have no Plantation on this South-west side, they only keep the Forts for possession, that no forein Ship may come and have the Port free to ride in, and Trade with the Natives. The Harbour is like a Sound, after one is within the Mouth of it toward the South part.
Here grow many good Canes on the Shoreside, such as are brought from the East-Indies, which are called Bamboas; these are very stiff Sticks, firm and heavy; they grow among the Trees on the sides of the Woods like Vines, and wind about the Trees: some are above twenty feet long, and taper from the root to the top, like an Angling-Rod.
All Commodities which come from Europe are very dear here, and scarce, for they have none brought to them, but by the way of Panama, and by the River of Plata, which pass through several Merchants hands before they come into these parts, and the transporting of them from place to place, is very chargeable. Many also are but of little esteem, here being such plenty of them: French Hollands, Silks, Flanders-Laces, Silk-stockings, Ribbaning, French Linnen, Looking glasses, and such like Commodities were much enquired for here, and would have sold at great Rates.
Gun powder for Fowling:-pieces, is worth a piece of Eight per pound: and Bird-shot is worth two Ryals of Plate a pound, and a Ryal and an half a pound. All Commodities of European Workmanship are of great worth here, as I unuerstand; and believe that more Northerly on the Coast of Chile about Vale Parazo, and Coquinto and Areca, where there are more Inhabitants, Commodities would bear a much greater price than what I mention, and there would vent greater quantities: for Silver is more plentiful by much in these parts than at Baldavia, they being nearer the Mines of the Potosea; for the Silver of Potosea comes down to the Port of Areca, and from thence it is carried to Lima by Sea.
I am of Opinion that the most advantageouS Trade in the World, might be made in these parts if it were but follow'd, and that leave were granted by the King of Spain for the English to Trade freely in all their Ports and Coasts: for the People which inhabit there are very defirous of a Trade: but the Governours durst not permit it without Orders, unless such Ships were to go thither and Trade per force, and not take notice of the Governours; which might be easily performed by four Ships of twenty and thirty pieces of Ordnance a Ship; and I believe that the Natives in the Southern parts of Chile, abour Castro and Orsono, and at Baldavia, would be brought to a rich Trade of Gold, when once they grew to be acquainted with those that should be employed on the design, and they did but use them civilly at the first, and gain their loves; which may be eastly done by giving them Knives, Scissars, Glasses, Beads, Combs, Hatchets, and the like Commodities; and treat them kindly. For what I underfrand by the Indians, who were aboard of me, they are Masters of the Golden part of the Country.
My intent being, if Weather permit me, to sail all along the Coast from Baldavia to the Southward, till I come to the Streights-Mouth at Cape Desiade. I came in great hopes to meet with the Indians in some part of the Coasts, and to Trade with them for Gold, and to find good Harbours. I resolve also to see in at the Islands of Castro and Orsono, and try what I can find among those Spaniards who are settled there, and whether they live accordingly as the Spaniard informed me here.
The Names of the four Men of my Company whom the Spaniards detained at Baldavia, and whom I left there.
Thomas Armiger Lieutenant, aged forty Years, and born in Norfolk.
John Fortescue Gentleman, aged twenty seven Years, and born in Kent.
Hugh Cooe Trumpeter, aged twenty eight Years, and born in Wappen.
Thomas Highway Linguist, aged thirty five Years, and born in Barbary of Moorish Parents: He turned Christian and lived in London; This Thomas Highway is a Tawny-Moor; he speaks the Spanish Tongue very clear, for he had lived formerly at Cadiz with an English Merchant.
All these four were very healthy sound Men, and of good Presence and Spirit; which gives me great hopes that they will live to give an Account of that Country, and of their Travels.
Cape-Gallery, which is the outermost Point on the South-side of the Harbour of Baldavia, lieth in the Latitude of thirty nine Degrees, fifty seven Minutes, South of the Equinoctial; as also in Longitude to the Westward of the Meridian of the Lizard of England, seventy Degrees, twenty Minutes, according to my Account; and Meridian distance, one thousand one hundred and eight Leagues West; and in Longitude East from the West-mouth of Magellan Streights and CapePillar, two Degrees and forty Minutes; and in Meridian distance 42 Leagues nearest, according to my reckoning.
Thursday December 22. This Morning it prov'd very fair Weather; at Day-light the Wind was at South-west, a fresh gale; the Sea indifferent smooth: I plied to the Windward along the Coasts, and was about three Leagues off the Shore, somewhat to the Southward of Cape Gallery, out of sight of the People of Baldavia; for the Cape was shut in with the Land to the Northward of the Harbour. At twelve of the Clock I had had a good Observation of the Sun with my Quadrant; and I found myself in the Latitude of 40 degrees 3 minutes South: I was then three Leagues off the Shore, and could not get ground at eighty fathom. I was to the Southward of Baldaavia Harbour.
December 31. This afternoon it blew hard at N.W. and rained; I steered South-west and by South, by my Compass, this Afternoon and to Night; Here are several sorts of Porpus-Fishes in these Seas, unlike ours in Europe: some pied white and black, and some grey and large ones. Rainy Weather to Night, and no Observation to be made of the Shore.
January, Anno. Dom. 1670/1.
Sunday. January 1. Raw, cold, cloudy Weather; Rain, and some Hail, the Wind at N. W. a stout gale, and a great Sea: I was much afraid that I should lose my Main-mast, it fetched such way, and broke the spikes that fastned the Fetches with working. I steered S. S. W. to ease the Ship from rolling what I could. After several Courses made from Saturday Noon till to day Noon, I make the true Course to be South 39 d. 00 m. Westerly, and distance sailed 105 Miles, and departure West 66 Miles, and difference of Longitude 101 d. 37 m. 4 tenths: difference of Latitude 1 d. 22 m. 3 tenths: Latitude by Account 47 d. 47 m. South.
Wednesday January 4. Indifferent fair Weather, the Wind at North-west, and sometimes at W.N.W. a fine gale: I kept on my Course South. Some Porpus Fishes seen to day, and some Whales and Sea-Fowl: many little Peterels. Thjs Morning I took the Suns Amplitude, and I find the Compass to have 10 Degrees 28 Minutes variation Easterly; My course made true from Tuesday Noon till to day Noon, is South; distance failed 84 Miles, and the difference of Latitude is 1 d. 24 m. 4 ten. Meridian distance from the Lizard, West 1178 Leagues, 1 Mile, 5 Tenths.
Friday January 6. Hasey, foggy weather this Morning, the Wind at W.S.W. a stout gale: I steered in for to make the four Islands, which I called the Isles of Direction, § or to make Cape Desiade: My course was E.N.E. by my Compass, the nights being but short, and light; for the Moon was at the full, so that I could see at some time clear a League before us.
§ Now called The Evangelists, the name given by earlier Spanish explorers. See de Nodals for a 1621 citation.
At four of the Clock this Morning, it being fair day-light, I caused the Lead to be cast forth, but could not get ground at eighty Fathom: I reckon my self about ten Leagues from Cape Desiade, and on the Latitude of 52 d. 53 m. South. A little past four of the Clock, it cleared up on the East Horizon: we looked well abroad, and saw the four Isles, called The Directions, which lie at the mouth of the Streights N.N.W. from Cape Desiade, distance from thence abought eight Leagues. These Islands made in four Hommacoes like Hay-cocks when I saw them: they bear N.E. of me, distant about four Leagues: they lie in the Latitude of 52 d. 42 m. and at five of the Clock the Islands bore North of me, distant three Leagues off; I sounded, but could not get ground at 70 Fathoms; I saw Cape Desiade; it cleared up, for the Fog was much on the Hills; the Cape was E.S.E. of me, distant near eight Leagues: the tops of the ragged Hills, or rocky Spires were clouded with the flying Fog, so as I could not see the Cape sooncr; for in clear Weather, the Land at Cape-pillar and Cape Desiade may be seen fifteen or sixteen Leagues, it is so high and ragged.
I steered by Cape-pillar East and by South, the Wind at West-south-west, a fresh gale; a great humming Sea ran here, which came out of the South-west; I saw the Sea break upon broken ground, which lieth at least four Leagues from the point of Cape Desiade West into the Sea, and many Rocks that were sunk, and prints of Rocks above Water, which the Sea breaketh terribly: these lie off Cape Desiade about two Leagues, and a League, and some not half a Mile off, very dangerous. As I came nearer the Streights-mouth, I raised the Land on the North-side by Cape Victory, and the broken Islands within the Streights, which I called Westminster lsle, and the Lodgers Isle: they make ragged in Hillocks at the first sight. At nine of the Clock Cape-pillar bore South of me, being distant about a Mile and an half from me.
No Tide or Current as I could perceive, set either in or out of the Streights, so as to prejudice Navigation.
The difference of Longitude, East is 1 d. 39 m. 4 tenths: the Latitude by my Account now, is but 52 d. 51 m. South: but formerly my Account of the Latitude of this place, was South 52 d. 58 m. Meridian distance at 9 of the Clock, from Point Gallery, West 35 leag. 00 mil. 110.
Longitude at 9 of the Clock, from Point Gallery, West. 2 deg. 43 min. 310.
Longitude at 9 of the Clock, from the Lizard, west 73 d. 3 m. 310.
I find but very little Tide or Current in this Sea of Mare del Zur; for I am but 3 Minutes of Longitude out of my Account, in sailing between Cape-Gallery and Cape-pillar, forwards and backwards.
At any time if you have a desire to enter the Streights of Magellan at the West-mouth, it will be safest in my Opinion, to bear in for the Latnd, in the Latitude of 52 Degrees, and 50 Minutes South, and then you will see the four Isles of Direction, which lie before the Mouth of the Streights, somewhat toward the North-side; they lie North-north-west from Cape-pillar, near eight Leagues distant. These Islands may be known, for there are but four of them, and they be but of an indifferent height, and but small, and bare irregular Rocks, and they be near together: the Eastermost Isle is near a Mile distant from the other three, and it is peeked up like a Sugar loaf: the Sea breaks much on thefe Isles with Westerly Winds, &c. Cape-pillar is the steep Point of Rocks on the South-side of the Streights-mouth, at the entring into the Streights; Cape Desiade is the Westerly Point, for it falleth off from Cape-pillar near South-west, and they are distant about two Leagues one from another, which is the Face of the Lands between these two Capes: for at the Point of Cape Desiade, the Land on the South-side of the Cape trents off to the South-south-eastward, all high ragged rocky Mountains: what I saw of it, at the pitch of Cape Desiade, there lie many shatter'd Rocks which are above Water, and shew like the Ruins of old Houses: and there are ledges of Rocks that are sunk, which lie near four Leagues off of the Cape, West; the Sea breaks much on them, and they are dangerous: they lie in the Latitude of 53 d. 10 m. South, by my reckoning; I called these Rocks The Judges; they are near ten Leagues distant South and by West from the Isles of Direction, so broad is the first opening of the Streights; for when you can but once see the Land, to make it, there is no danger; bur a Stranger that should pass out of the South-sea, and had not passed the Streights before, will find it very difficult to pass the Streights from the West to the East; for at the first entring into it out of the South sea, as we call it, there are many Openings and Sounds on the North side, which seem fairer for a passage than the Streight itself doth: therefore it is best to keep the South-side, far aboard all along from Cape-pillar, which is the point at the Entrance: the Course will be East and by South for a Mile or two, and then East-south-east, and South-east and by East: so the Channel lieth to Cape Quade.
The North-side of the Streights from Cape Victory, all along to the Eastward to Cape Froward, is all a ragged, rocky, mountainous, desolate Country; many high rocky Islands, and small Rocks, and sucking Rocks lie on the North-side of the Streights, at coming out of Mare del Zur, fifteen Leagues in distance into the Streights to the Eastward. There also run great Sounds and Waters into the North-Land, which shew like a passage more than the Streights doth. There is no safety for a Ship to keep the North-shore aboard in this part; for here lie so many Islands and Rocks, so that if the Weather prove foggy and thick, a Man may mistake the right Channel; and steer in among the broken Islands and Rocks, so far as to endangcr his Ship, if the Wind be Westerly, and it is for the most part of the Winter there, very thick and foggy.
Here are many Sounds and Coves on the North-side, between Cape-Victory and Cape Quad; but how far they run into the Land, I know not. I wanted a Sloop, or some other small Vessel, to discover those Sounds: and many other places in the Streights, which I would gladly have seen.
January 6. In Tuesday-bay and Island-bay, there grow thick shrubby Bushes on the lower Land, which have many Berries like Hurts growing on them: these Bushes grow in a mossy loofe Earth, which lieth four or five Feet thick on the Rock; these Bushes will serve for Fuel: there grows also long sedgy Grass very thick; many Geese and Ducks do make their Nests and breed in it, and other Sea-Fowl: here are Ducks, white and pied brant-Geese, grey Gulls, Sea-Mews, Sea-Divers and Penguins on the Water; I could not see any People now, but some have been there; for I saw where they had made Fires, and an Arbour. Here are Muscles and Limpets on the Rocks, but as for other Fishes I saw none. I rowed two Miles up the Sound, and could have gone farther, but it rained so much, and blew so hard, as I durst not be absent from the Ship; the Water is mighty deep in the Sound. At Night I got aboard, my Seamen were joyful to see me, for they were afraid that the Ship would have broke loose in the time of my absence. Much Rain to Night, and Fogs, the Wind at West-south-west, a short gale at Night; I rode fast on the smooth Water, having the Point on the North-west of me: Here is a great deal of fresh Water comes running in streams down the sides of the bare rocky Mountains into the salt Water; many Whales spouting to and fro in these Bays and Sounds, and some Seals on the Rocks: this part is very desolate, and a mere Chaos, &c.
At eight of the Clock this Evening, I anchored before the place called Batchelors River, in nine Fathom Water, clear sandy Ground, two Cables length from the shore. Here is very good clear sandy-ground before the River, and good Anchoring in six, or seven, or eight, or nine, or ten, or eleven Fathom: a fine barth of shore, and good Riding with Westerly winds, and Northerly: the worst Wind is a South-Wind, for it blows right on in this Reach; but there cannot go much sea here; for the Streight in this Reach is but two Leagues broad. This Batchelors River is near five Leagues to the Eastward of Cape Quade, and two leagues to the Eastward of St. Jerom's Channel: on the North-side of it, the Tide runs of an indifferent strength in this place, both Ebb and Flood; it sets in and out of St. Jerom's Channel, rising and falling about eight or nine Feet perpendicular: here is not above ten Foot Water at a High-water, at the going in of Batchelor's River. This River is a good Harbour for Barks and Sloops, or the like. This River lieth in a Valley, and a fine Grove of green Trees grows on the West Point: At the entrance here is very good fresh water, and a good place to Wood at. The Indian People or Natives frequent this place often; for here are many Arbours, which are their Houses: Calm Weather to Night, and Foggy; I rode sail, the Ship being moored.
Sunday January 8. Calm weather, and a fine warm Sunshine; This Morning at Day-light, I went in my Boat with twenty Men into Batchelor's River, and rowed four Miles up the Creek, or River, which was as far as the Boat could go; the Water being high: the River ends in a small Creek, coming out of a Lake of fresh Water, in a Valley amongst the Hills: we made the Boat fast, and marched all into he Land five or six Miles, being stop'd from going further, by Hills rising very steep, and Mountains, and impenetrable Woods: we made several Fires,but could not see any sign of them so far in the Land. No Beast or other Creature to be seen; many small streams of fresh Water come running from the snowy Mountains, with great Falls from the steep Rocks: we looked in many places of the Earth, and in the streams of Water for Gold, &c. but found none, nor any other Metal or Mineral: Here grow on the Bushes many small red Berries, much like Hurts, very good to eat; the Grass-Land is very loose and Boggy: the Rocks are a kind of white Marble; the Trees like those at Port Famen; here are small Pepper-trees. To Night got on Board; Calm Weathcr: I rode fast with the ship.
Here ends Sir John Narbrough's Manuscript Journal, which we shall continue home to England from the MS Diary, taken by Sir John's ingenious Lieutenant, Nathaniel Pecket.
Wednesday January 11. Fair Weather, Wind variable, from South-east to South-west. This Morning we made the best of our way to get into Port Famen; Here we had Fishes from the Shore to Fish our Main mast: At twelve a Clock we Anchored in nine Fathom Water. This place afforded what we wanted, as very good large Trees for Fishes: good Water, good wild Fowl, good Fish, like Mullets, and large Smelts. Here we fitted our Ships Masts, and Rigging as well as we could; Careen’d her, and filled our Casks with good fresh Water, and took as much Wood aboard, as we thought fit.
January 16. Fair Weather, and little Wind, Westerly. This Morning the Lieutenant was ordered to go up with the Boat in Segars River,§ as high as he could with convenience, and to see for Indians: He went up about nine Miles, but could not get higher with the Boat by reason of the Trunk-timber, and shoaliness in the Water. So I landed, and went up two Miles by Land to see for Indians: but I could not see any, nor any thing worth the Observation. How far the River runs up, I know not, for I saw not the end of it: so I returned a-board again.
§ Previously named Rio San Juan named by Sarmiento. Narbrough does not claim to have given the river this name. The identity of “Segar” (or “Sedgar”) is unknown. In any case, the river retains the name given it by Sarmiento.
January 29. Fair Weather, and little Wind at South-west. This Morning the Captain went over with the Pinnace to the South-shore to see for Indians, and if there were an Harbour for Shipping, short of Port Famen. This day came an Indian to the Point of Port Famen, and made a Fire; and I went a-shore to see what he had: but he had neither Bow, nor Arrow, nor any thing else to the value of a Farthing: I would have had him come a-board with me, but he would not; as far as I underst:ood by the Signs he made to me, he had been a Slave to some other Indians, and had run away from them, and was travelling home.
Tuesday January 31. Fair Weather, Wind variable. This Evening the Captain came a-board again, having been over on the South-shore, to see for an Harbour, but could find none, nor see any Indians.
Saturday February 4. Fair Weather, Wind at West by North. This Morning, at four a Clock we set Sail for Port Famen, and at eleven a Clock we were short of Fresjh water Bay; and at six a Clock in the Evening, we Anchored in twelve Fathom Water, in a fine sandy Bay, about four Leagues to the Northward of Freshwater Bay.
February 5. Fair Weather, but very much Wind, at South-west, and West-south-west:. This Morning the Captain sent me to Freshwater Bay to see for Indians, but I saw none there, so I returned again aboard.
February 7. Fair Weather, Wind Northerly. This Morning the Captain ordered me to take the Pinnace, and to go along the North-shore, and between Elizabeth's lfland and the Shore, to see for Indians. In the Afternoon, it blew hard Northerly, that we could not row a head; so I put back into a sandy Bay, and went a-shore, and stayed there all Night; and in this Bay we haled the same, and got a great many good and large Smelts: Smelts of twenty Inches long, and eight Inches about.
Wednesday February 8. Fair weather, Wind West-south-west:. This Morning at four a Clock, I run down the Streights with the Pinnace, keeping the North-shore a board, and run betwixt it and Elizabeth's Island, but saw no Indians: yet saw several places, where they had been very lately, and where they had built their Canowes. From Cape Desiade to Elizabeth’s Island, there is Wood and fresh Water plenty; but from Elizabeth’s Island, to Cape Virgin-Mary, Wood and fresh Water is very scarce to come by. This Afternoon at three a Clock, I got aboard again, and at four a Clock a Clock, we came to an Anchor in eight Fathom Water, black Sand; we rid within a Mile of the North-shore: St. Georges, and St. Bartholomew's Island were both shut in one,and they bore South south-east of me; and Elizabeths Island bore South and by East: And here we rid with the Ship all Night.
February 9. Fair Weather, Wind Westerly. This Morning the Captain sent me to see for Indians, but I could see none; yet I fell with a good Harbour for small Vessels, on the North-side, and at the South-end of a great deep Bay, thwart of Elizabeths Island; the entrance of this Harbour is not a Bow-shot from side to side: I sounded it, and there was twelve foot Water at a low Water; but within there was three Fathom Watcr, at low Water: From the entrance of this harbour to the upper end of it, is about seven Miles; Here is in this Harbor great store of Geese and Ducks; and a-shore there is great store of Heath-berries, and Hicts, and small Blackberries, good and well-tasted; but I saw no Indians, so I returned a-board again; the Captain went into another Harbour, a Mile to thw Southward of the second Narrow on the North shore, and had four Fathom Water in it; it is very broad within, and there is great store of Sea-Crabs.
Saturday February 11. Fair Weather, Wind variable. This day the Captain ordered me to go with the Pinnace, and discover the North-shore, and if I could with convenience discover some part of the South; and to go to the first Narrow and there to stay for the Ship; so I went through the second, and landed on the South-side, in a fine sandy Bay, or Cove, expecting to fall with Indians, for I saw a many Fires up in the Land; I went up abour five or six Miles, but could see no Indians. Then the Night coming on, I returned again to the Boat; and there we pitched a Tent to lie in, and lay all Night; and at High water we set the same thwart a Pond of Water, and there it stood until Low-water; then we haled the Pond all over, and haled a-shore about 700 good and large Fish like Mullets. This Land is very dry, barren Land, and nothing to be seen in it worth the Observation.
February 12. Fair weather, Wind Northerly. This Morning I went over to the North-shore, and there I fell with a fine sandy Bay; I sounded it, and had 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Fathom Water above half a Mile from the Shore. This Bay is between the second Narrow, and Cape Gregory; close under Cape Gregory; this Cape is about five or six Miles to the Eastwards of the second Narrow: here I landed, the Winds being Northerly, a fresh gale, and haled the Boat up dry; and went up into the Country to see for Indians, but saw none, and I returned to the Boat again, where we pitched our Tent, and lay all Night.
February 13. Fair Weather, and a fresh gale of Wind Westerly. This Morning I run all along the North-shore from Cape Gregory to the first Narrow: and I was no sooner entred into the first Narrow, but I saw three Anchors, which lay up above High-water Mark, in a small sandy Cove:§ there I landed,and haled up the Boat;. and searched about to see if we could fall with any Guns, or other Trade. One of the Men found an Iron Commander for some Ships Poop: one of those Anchors were twelve Foot long in the Shank, and the other two were eleven Foot a piece, and they were all Spanish Anchors. The Land here is barren, dry Land, and affords neither Wood, nor fresh Water; and for the space of five, or six Miles about, the Land is full of Rats; they have Holes in the Ground like Coney burroughs: their Food I suppose to be Limpet, for there is great store of Limpet-shoals lying close to their Holes: I saw no Indians here, nor any thing worth Obferving. Night coming on, we here pitched our tent, and lay all Night; here are very good sandy Bays on the North side, all the way betwixt. the first and second Narrow: for I sounded all along as I came down in the Boat, and had ten and twelve Fathom Water, a good Burth off.
§ The anchors are seen on John Sturt's [T]erra del Fuogo map (third detail view).
Tuesday February 14. Close, hasey Weather, with some Rain, and very much Wind Westerly. This Morning I saw the Ship coming dowh the Streights; and after she was through the Narrow thecy brought her to, and I got a-board; and we made all the Sail we could, and by Night we got clear of the Streights into the North sea; and at three a Clock Cape Virgin Mary bore North-west a Point Northerly, distance 4 Leagues.
Thursday February 23. Fair weather, the Wind variable, from tbe North-north-west, to the West-north-west. This Evening at nine a Clock, we came to an Anchor in 22 Fathom Water, sandy Ground on the South part of America, in the Lat. of 47 d. 16 m. South; and then Cape-Blanco bore North-north-west of me, distant about six Leagues.
February 24. Fair Weather, and little Wind, Northerly. This Morning we weighed, to go to Port Desire-Bay, and in the Evening at six a Clock we Anchored in the Bay, in fourteen Fathom Water.
February 25.Fair Weather, and a fresh gale of wind Easterly. This day the Long boat went into Port-Desire for fresh-Water, but could not fill above five or six Puncheons; for there was no more to be had there, and all they brought aboard, was brackish: Fair Weather, Wind variable.
Sunday February 26. Fair Weather, and a fresh Wind at South-south-west. This Morning we see Sail from Port-Desire, to go for England; and at twelve a Clock, I was in the Latitude of 47 deg. 10 m. South. And then Cape Blanco bore North-west of me, but not by the Compass; for here is a Point and half variation Easterly: and at four a Clock Cape-Blanco bore West-north-west of me, by the Compass, distance nine Miles, and then we had twenty Fathom water: but when it bears West-north-west from you, and you are 8 Miles off, you will have but ten Fathom Water. Here is very good Sounding all the Coast along; from this Cape to Cape Virgin-Mary, which lies in 52 d. 15 m. South. Within five Leagues off the Main, you will have 25 and 30 Fathom Water; and 10 Leagues off, you will have 50, and 55 Fathom Water, it is black oasie Sand.
Wednesday May 17. The Weather fair. This Evening at six a Clock, we saw the Island of Saint Mary, one of the Isles of Azores, it bore East-north-east of me, distant about sixteen Leagues by Estimation: fair Weather, Wind at South-east.
May 19. Fair Weather, Wind Easterly. This Morning at seven a Clock, the Town of Puntelegada, upon the Island of St. Michaels, one of the Isles of Azores, bore North of me, distant about two Miles; and my Longitude difference from Cape-Blanco to this Town is [ ]. My Meridian distance from Cape-Blanco to this Town is [ ] Leagues, [ ] Miles, [ ] Tenths,§ Easting this Town, lying so far to the Eastward of the Cape. This day the Captain sent me a-shore to Puntelegada, to enquire News from England, whether we had War or Peace with any other Nation, or not; and I was informed by Mr. Richard Nucheuson,† that we had War with none, but the Argea-Men.‡ So I returned a-board again, and we made all the Sail we could for England.
§ [ ] indicates a blank space in the text.
† British Consul Richard Huchinson in Wood's Voyage.
‡ Algerines in Wood's Voyage.
Tuesday May 23. Fair Weather; and much Wind at North-east; our Provisions being almost done, and but little Water in the Ship; we bore upto go for Angria at the Terceras.
May 24. Close, haseyWeather, and a fresh gale of Wind at North-east by North. This Forenoon we Anchored in Artgria-Rode, in sixteen Fathom Water.
Friday May 26. Fair Weather, and little Wind at North-east. This Forenoon we set Sail out of Angria-Rode, to go for England.
Saturday June 10. 1671. It was hasey, dirty weather, Wind at S. W. This morning I saw Scilly, at seven a Clock; it bore N.E. by N. of me, distant about 5 Leagues; and at six a Clock in the Afternoon the Lizzard [sic] bore North of me, distant about 3 Leagues. Now, I make my difference of Longitude, from Cape Blanco to the Lizzard in England, to be 60 d. 45 m. 2/10 and my Meridian distance is 840 Leagues; I am so far to the Eastwards of the Cape.